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Basic Reservoir Concepts1

Basic Reservoir Concepts1

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Basic Reservoir Concepts
ByV S Chimmalgi(GT 2005 19-7-05: For Internal Circulation only)
Course Content:
Introduction1.1Petroleum reservoir2Rock Properties2.1Porosity2.2Isothermal compressibility of rock2.3Saturation
Interstitial or Connate Water Saturation2.5Capillary forces2.6Wettability2.7Capillary pressure2.8Permeability3 Reservoir Fluid properties3.1Gravity of oil3.2Solution Gas-oil Ratio (
)3.3Formation volume factor (FVF –Bo)3.4Isothermal Compressibility of Oil3.5Formation volume factor for Gas ( Bg)4Fluid flow in reservoirs4.1 Well-bore damage and improvement effects5 Phase behavior and Classification of Reservoirs6 Reserve Estimation Method6.1Volumetric method:6.2Material balance6.3Decline curve analysis6.4Simulation7.Enhanced oil recoveryReferences:1.Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering by L P Dake
2.Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering tool, B.C.Craft & Hawkins3.Applied Reservoir Engineering , Smith, Tracy, Farrar
Petroleum deposits occur in a variety of ways and forms both as surface deposits andsubsurface deposits. These deposits are found on all continents and regions, although theabundance of finding may vary very widely. Oil and gas seepages, tar asphalt or bitumenare various forms of petroleum that occur at the surface of the ground. The subsurfaceoccurrences can be classified as Pools, Fields and Provinces.
is a body of oil or gas or both found underground occurring as a separate reservoir and under a
single pressure system
Constitute several such pools having a single geologic feature. For exampleGandhar and Ankleshwar fields having many major and minor pools.
Petroleum province
is a region, in which a number oil and gas pools and field occur in asimilar geologic region like Southeastern Oklahoma, Kansas, Western Texas of US andUpper Assam and South Gujarat in India
Petroleum Reservoir
 The petroleum reservoir is that portion of the rock that contains thepool of petroleum. A reservoir consists of four essential elements, a) The reservoir rock b) reservoir pore space c) reservoir fluids and d)reservoir trap. The reservoir rock is that material in which oil and gas are found. Oiland gas are chiefly found in sand stones, lime stones and dolomitesand are essentially sedimentary rocks. Out of all rocks lime stone anddolomites contain the most of the world petroleum. Petroleumreservoirs of Saudi Arabia, Iran and Mumbai High field of ONGC areLime stone reservoirs.Maximum number of reservoirs is found in sand stones, however thetotal quantity of petroleum produced from carbonate reservoirs is morethan that produced from sand stone reservoirs.A sand stone or lime stone would qualify for becoming a petroleumreservoir rock only when it is porous and the pores are interconnected. These two essentials of a reservoir rock are defined as porosity andpermeability respectively. The pores provide space for storage of thereservoir fluids while permeability of the rock gives the ability of therock to permit the flow of petroleum fluids through it so that they couldbe produced.
Oil, gas and water are the three fundamental fluids of a petroleumreservoir. The properties of each of these fluids, the fluid fluidinteraction and fluid – rock interactions play a very important role indetermining the recovery processes and how much can be recoveredfrom a given reservoir. For example a heavy oil and highly viscousreservoir may need thermal recovery process for maximizing therecovery.Since oil and gas are lighter than water the petroleum fluids movevertically and laterally within the rock stratum until it is barred fromfurther movement by an impervious rock which we generally call as
cap rock 
. A cap rock that is concave when viewed from the bottomtraps the oil and gas from escaping both laterally and vertically. Such atrap is called
structural trap
. While the traps formed due to changesin the lateral properties like permeability due to changes in the facies ,truncations of sands due to faulting along with cap rocks constitute
Stratigraphic traps
. Initially the petroleum exploration mainlyconcentrated around finding out concave traps which we call them as
. With the advent of advanced exploratory tools like 2D, and3 D surveys more and more difficult stratigraphic traps are beingdiscovered.

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