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The final project for MIT's best physics class: 8.251 - String Theory for Undergraduates. The project involved writing solutions to selected problems in Barton Zwiebach's "A First Course in String Theory", ISBN: 0521831431.

The final project for MIT's best physics class: 8.251 - String Theory for Undergraduates. The project involved writing solutions to selected problems in Barton Zwiebach's "A First Course in String Theory", ISBN: 0521831431.

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String Thermodynamics and Black Holes8.251 Course Project

Igor SylvesterMay 13, 2005

Quick Calculations

QC16.1

Solution of Quick Calculation 16.1

Using

F

=

E

−

TS

, (16.39), and (16.40),

E

=

F

+

TS

=

−

1

ω

0

π

2

61

β

2

−

Tkπ

2

3

kT

ω

0

E

=

π

2

6

kT

ω

0

2

ω

0

.

QC16.2

Solution of Quick Calculation 16.2

Using the asymptotic expansion of

p

24

(

N

), we get

p

24

(

N

+ 1)

p

24

(

N

)

≈

2

−

1

/

2

(

N

+ 1)

−

27

/

4

exp(4

π

√

N

+ 1)2

−

1

/

2

N

−

27

/

4

exp(4

π

√

N

)

≈

N

+ 1

N

−

27

/

4

exp

4

π

√

N

+ 1

−√

N

.

For large

N

, (

N

+ 1)

/N

≈

1, so

p

24

(

N

+ 1)

p

24

(

N

)

≈

exp

4

π

√

N

+ 1

−√

N

.

Pulling out a factor of 1

/

√

N

in the exponent gives us,

p

24

(

N

+ 1)

p

24

(

N

)

≈

exp

4

π

√

N

N

(

N

+ 1)

−

N

.

For large

N

,

N

(

N

+ 1)

≈

N

+12

.

1

Thus,

p

24

(

N

+ 1)

p

24

(

N

)

≈

exp

2

π

√

N

.

QC16.3

Solution of Quick Calculation 16.3

For

N

= 1, there is only one partition, namely

{

1

b

}

, where

b

runs from 1 to 24. Wehave to choose one element out of 24, thus

p

24

(1) = 24.The partitions of

N

= 2 are

{

2

b

1

}

,

{

1

b

1

,

1

b

2

}

.

For the ﬁrst partition, we can choose 24 elements. There are two cases for the secondpartition. If

b

1

=

b

2

, we can choose out of 24 elements for the ﬁrst element, and out of 23 for the second element. Since the two elements can be in any order, we must divideby 2. If

b

1

=

b

2

, then there are 24 such partitions. Thus,

p

24

(2) = 24 + (24

×

23

/

2 + 24) = 324

.

The partitions of

N

= 3 are

{

3

b

1

}

,

{

2

b

1

,

1

b

2

}

,

{

1

b

1

,

1

b

2

,

1

b

3

}

.

The ﬁrst case has 24 partitions. The second case also has 24

×

24 elements becausenone of the 2

b

1

’s is equal to any of the 1

b

2

’s. So, we can pick any

b

1

and

b

2

for bothelements. For the three-element partition, there are four cases. For all

b

i

’s diﬀerent,there are

243

=24!3!(24

−

3)!= 2024such partitions. For only two equal indices, there are2

242

= 828partitions. The factor of 2 takes care of all the ways of choosing two elements withequal indices. The last case,

b

1

=

b

2

=

b

3

, has 24 partitions. Thus,

p

24

(3) = 24 + 24

×

24 +

243

+ 2

242

+ 24

= 3200

.

2

The partitions of

N

= 4 are

{

4

b

1

}

,

{

3

b

1

,

1

b

2

}

,

{

2

b

1

,

2

b

2

}

,

{

2

b

1

,

1

b

2

,

1

b

3

}

,

{

1

b

1

,

1

b

2

,

1

b

3

,

1

b

4

}

.

Using the results obtained previously for the ﬁrst three partitions and generalizing thecounting for the partition with four elements, we get

p

24

(4) = 24 + 24

2

+

242

+ 24

+

24

242

+ 24

2

+

244

+ 3

243

+ 3

242

+ 24

= 25650

.

QC16.4

Solution of Quick Calculation 16.4

A spherical uniform mass is a black hole if its radius

R

satisﬁes

R < R

S

, where

R

S

= 2

GM/c

2

is the Schwarzchild radius. Since the density of the spherical object is

ρ

=

M V

=3

M

3

πR

3

,

we have

R

S

> R

2

GM c

2

>M V ρR.

A little rearranging gives us

R >c

8

πGρ/

3

.

QC16.5

Solution of Quick Calculation 16.5

Since

E

=

ω

and

ω

= 2

πc/λ

,

λ

= 2

π

c/E

. Using

E

=

k

¯

T

H

, the ratio of thewavelength to the radius of the black hole is

λR

=2

π

c/k

¯

T

H

2

GM/c

2

= 8

π

2

≈

80

.

QC16.6

Solution of Quick Calculation 16.6

Recall (16.145)

R

4

α

2

=

g

2

Y M

N.

The ’t Hooft coupling is

λ

=

g

2

Y M

N

, and the IIB theory expansion parameter is

λ

=

α

2

/R

4

. Hence,

λ

λ

= 1

.

3

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