Basque Country, Galicia, Catalonia, and Andalusia, adoptedaccording to the 1978 post-Franco Constitution; and thedevolution ofScotland and Wales of1998.
Since the outbreak ofviolent secessionism triggered by the ColdWar transition, autonomy has been advocated once again as apossible solution. In the 1990s, a major initiative towards this endwas launched through the UN General Assembly by thegovernment ofLiechtenstein.
The theory was that secessionistentities would be able to accommodate their aims through self-governance without the need to disrupt the territorial integrity of existing states.
Recent practice distinguishes two types ofself-governance solutions. These are local or regional autonomy andfederalisation. The latter, which will be considered in the nextsection, tends to be offered where the secessionist entity hasestablished effective control over the relevant territory with noprospect ofrecapture by the centre, or where the entity can pointto a federal status it enjoyed previously.It is ofcourse widely accepted that autonomy
be a meansofaddressing the minority rights entitlements ofsuchTrading Self-determination for Autonomy or Self-governance79
See the handy survey by T. Benedikter,
The Working Autonomies in Europe: Territorial Autonomy as a Means ofMinority Protection and Conﬂict Solution in the European Experience
. Fulltext available at http://www.gfbv.it/3dossier/eu-min/autonomy.html, accessed 3November 2008.
This initiative is detailed in W. Danspeckgruber and Sir A. Watts, eds.,
Self-determinationand Self-administration: A Sourcebook
, Boulder: Lynne Rienner (2000).
See generally R. Bernhardt, “Federalism and Autonomy”, in Y. Dinstein (ed.),
, New Brunswick: Transaction Press (1981), at 23–30; see also Y. Ghai (ed.),
Autonomy and Ethnicity
, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2000); Hannum,
n. 18; R. Lapidoth,
Autonomy: Flexible Solutions to Ethnic Conﬂicts
,Washington: United States Institute ofPeace Press (1997), at b27 and 57ff; J. Marko, Autonomie und Integration, Vienna, Cologne, Graz:
Rechtsinstitute des Nationalitätenrechts im funktionalen Vergleich
(1995), at 262ff; A. Reynolds (ed.),
The Architecture ofDemocracy
,Oxford: Oxford University Press (2001); M. Suksi (ed.),
Autonomy: Applications and Implications
, The Hague: Kluwer Law International (1998); H. Hannum (ed.),
Documents on Autonomy and Minority Rights
, Dordrecht:Martinus Nijhoff(1993); K. Gal
, MinorityGovernance in Europe
, Flensburg/Budapest: European Centre for Minority Issues/LocalGovernment Initiative (2002); Weller and Wolff,