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Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation

Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation

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Published by kuitang
Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage, AP 9th Edition.

MORE NOTES at the repository at http://supernova.dyndns.org/csmfoc/
Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage, AP 9th Edition.

MORE NOTES at the repository at http://supernova.dyndns.org/csmfoc/

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Published by: kuitang on Nov 12, 2007
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AP Euro Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation
Society and Religion
Monarch progressively take away local power; townspeople lose rights and freedoms. Religious
revolt seen as ally to stay politically free.
Social and Political Conflict
\ue000Reformation first in free imperial cities of Germany (Lutheran), Switzerland
(Zwinglian).
\ue00165 free imperial cities.
\ue001Some quickly turn, some slow, some mixed.
\ue000Economic and social prosperity -> more enthusiastic to reform.
\ue001Printers\u2019 guild. Literate, sophisticated, rapidly growing.
\ue001Bullied\u2014certain guilds with government control, regions with powerful monarch.
Popular Religions Movements and Criticism of the Church [big idea]

\ue000\u201cExile\u201d in Avignon
\ue000Great Schism
\ue000Conciliar period (?)
\ue000Renaissance papacy
\ue000Diet of Worms (1521) German nobility present 102 oppressive, corrupting church bur-

dens.
In general, increasing frustration with Catholic Church by end of Middle Ages.
Lay Criticism
\ue000Urban laypeople knew more about the world: travels, post, printing press, library.
\ue000Religioussimplic ity; imitation of Jesus. Members equal, modeled on New Testament
The Modern Devotion (Brothers of the Common Life a/k/a The Modern Devotion)

\ue000Religious life of prayer and study w/o church commitments or abandoning World.
\ue000Zwolle, DeventerinNether lands.
\ue000Educated public; civic minded.
\ue000Nicholas of Cusa; Johannes Reuchlin, Desiderius Eramus studied here.
\ue000Thomas a Kempis: Imitation of Christ \u2013 most popular religious book.
\ue000Personal piety. Conservative (retain old values) but not hierarchy.

Lay Control over Religious Life
\ue000Network of church offices collapse: sense of regional identity, better regional administra-
tion.
\ue000Benefice \u2013 church sell offices to highest bidder.
\ue000Often benefice holders didn\u2019t live in their diocese -> badly administer them. Greedy.
1
\ue000Rulers/administrators allowed/encouraged indulgences because taxed.
\ue000Governments take more control of church properties, tax them, etc.
Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525
English/French national religion reformation: Statutes of Provisors and Paemunire/Pragmatic
Sanction of Bourges.
Bio [details]

\ue000Son ofThuringian miner
\ue000Educated Mansfeld, Magdeburg (Brothers o/t Common Life), Eisenach.
\ue0001501 \u2013 1505 Univ. of Erfurt. Did not pursue law like expected...

\ue001Listened to William of Ockham, Gabriel Biel

\ue000Entered Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine in Erfurt on 17 July 1505.
\ue0001510 \u2013 Went to Rome and verified criticisms.
\ue0001511 \u2013 Augustinian monastery in Wittenberg, doctorate in theology 1512.

Justification by Faith Alone [big idea]
\ue000Did not believe humans could achieve God-required perfection.
\ue000Instead, don\u2019t do good works for the sake of salvation. That prevents you from acting
selflessly b/c you always fear. Know faith will save you, then selflessly act. Not whether
to do good things; what to think about them.
\ue000God does not account good works because that would be God a puppet to man.
The Attack on Indulgences
\ue000Priestly absolution transform eternal penalty of sin into temporal (work: fast, pray, alms,
...)
\ue000Indulgences originally given to Crusaders who couldn\u2019t complete penance b/c died.
\ue0001343 \u2013Pope Clement 6 (r. 1342-1352) declare treasury of merit \u2013 infinite reserve of
Church\u2019s good works. Dispensed by Pope.
\ue000Sixtus 4 \u2013 Indulge sins of people in Purgatory.
\ue000Leo 10 \u2013 revived Jubilee Indulgence (plenary) (first issued by Julius 2) to rebuild St.
Peter\u2019s Basilica.
\ue000ArchbishopAlbrecht of Mainz needed money to pay debt for holding 3 ecclesiastical of-
fices.
\ue001Albrecht, Fugger banking house, and Pope Leo sold indulgences. Half to Leo; half
to Albrecht and creditors.
\ue001JohnTe t ze l preached indulgences good persuasively.
Luter\u2019s 95 Theses argued indulgences to save Purgatory people trivialized salvation into a
product.
Election of Charles 5 [big idea; recurring]
Nuremberg humanists translated/distributed 95 Theses.
Death of Emperor Maximilian 1 (1519) bought time for Luther. Fortunate.
2

\ue000Pope support Francis 1.
\ue000Habsburg and Fugger support (buy 7 votes) Charles 1 of Spain.
\ue000Fredrick the Wise \u2013 Luther\u2019s lord and protector.
\ue000Exchange for votes, Charles 1 -> Charles 5 revive Imperial Supreme Court, Council of

Regency, and consult with diet on major FX/DX affairs.
\ue001Prevented unilateral imperial action against reformists.
Luther\u2019s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms
1520 \u2013 wrote
\ue000Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
\ue001Rulers should force reforms and church and reduce its power.
\ue000 Babylonian Captivity of the Church
\ue001Only 2/7 sacraments (Baptism, Eucharist) Biblical. Prince > Pope.
\ue000Freedom of a Christian\u2013Salvation by faith alone.
(Same year) Leo\u2019s Papal Bull (Charter) Exsurge Domine declare heretic; give 60 days.
(Jan.1521) bull of exocommunication.
(Apr. 1521) argued before Diet of Worms, presided by Chuck 5; ordered to recant. Said contra-

dicted Scripture, reason, conscience.
(May 1521) imperial ban declared him outlaw. Hid and disguised at Wartburg Castle for a year.
Translated New Testament to German using Erasmus.

Imperial Distractions: War with France and the Turks [big idea; recurring]
War with France and Ottoman Turks. Also worked on relationships with princes to get German
troops.
Diet of Speyer (1526) \u2013 declared princes free to enforce Edict of Worms (1521) (condemned
Luther) gave princes authority to religion.
Peace of Augsburg (1555) grant princely control over religion in imperial law.
How the Reformation Spread
1520s \u2013 1530 : magistrates and princes adopted reformation and legislated reform.
Many rulers supported reforms for decades.
1530s: Schmaldkaldic League \u2013 German protestant lands; prepared for war against Catholic
emperor.
The Peasants\u2019 Revolt
\ue000Reformation plagued by internal division.
\ue000Peasants, Luter initially sympathized each other. Peasants see criticism of Christian
freedoms and monastic landowners as their own.
\ue000Lutherans not social revolutionaries; viewed intertwine with peasant revolution as doom.
\ue000Revolt1524-5 invoking Luther\u2019s name. He condemned as un-Christian. Suppressed;
70,000 \u2013 100,000 died.
\ue000If Luther supported revolution, he\u2019d contradict himself and probably die.
\ue000Critics believe decision ended hope of Reformation assoc ial and moral force.
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