Saleable water from phase onehas been allocated by the GreatMan-made River Authority to threeidentiﬁed end users: agricultural,industrial, and municipal.Over 70 percent of the wateris intended for agriculturaldevelopment in the form of largeand small farms and it is expectedthat 130,000 hectares of agriculturalland will be developed. In order tooptimize agricultural development,a water storage and distributionplan has been adopted. This aims tomaintain a constant supply of waterthroughout the year by the use of large storage reservoirs to meetﬂuctuating demands. Farm incomeover the 50-year design life isestimated at some USD 15.9 billionbased on a cropping pattern biasedtoward strategic crops. A croppingpattern biased towards high-valuecrops for export will generate anincome of USD 18.5 billion over50 years. In either case the levelof self-sufﬁciency in food, which isan important objective of nationalplanning policy, will be signiﬁcantlyenhanced.The settlement of familiesin new areas where farms arebeing established is generatingemployment opportunities andother social beneﬁts. The familyfarming planning will beneﬁt some6,600 family members. In addition,a large number of existing farmfamilies who are beneﬁting fromGreat Man-made River watersupplies are beneﬁting fromincreased income and employmentopportunities.There are other beneﬁts thatare difﬁcult to evaluate in monetaryterms but may be of overridingimportance from the perspectiveof national, social and economicpolicy. No initial evaluation of social out turn was decided at theoutset of the project since in eachcircumstance the desire to achievea positive high rate of return oninvestment or even to recovercosts may not have been the maingoal of policy.The estimation of social andeconomic beneﬁts is difﬁcultto achieve without diverse andextensive data inputs, whichwere not available at the onsetof the project. Information abouteconomic and social beneﬁts willbe more readily obtainable afterlong-term operation. The immediateobjective of the project is toprovide desperately needed urbanwater supplies.
Three more phases of the GreatMan-made River Project are nowunder construction. These arethe Ghadames – Zuwarah – AlZawia system in the west of thecountry, which will have a totalproduction of 90 million m
/year of water from 106 wells inGhadames, the Kufra – Tazerbolink, which will add 1.68 millionm
/day to phase one from 300wells in Kufra, and the Ajdabiya – Tobruk link, which will supplyTobruk and the eastern coastaltowns with around 137,000 m
of water daily for domestic use.The Al-Gardabiya – As Sadadahsystem which links phases oneand two along the coast and willenable bi-directional ﬂow, wasalready completed and is nowfully operational. Constructionand operation of phases one andtwo have revealed signiﬁcant anduseful guidelines to be applied inthe subsequent phases.The Great Man-made Riverproject is based on sound, cleantechnology which providesminimal environmental impactand maximum socio-economicbeneﬁts. Hydro geologicalinvestigations and continuousmonitoring of the phase one wellﬁelds conﬁrm the presence of large reserves of good qualitygroundwater in the Libyandesert basins which can sustaindemand supplies for more than100 years. Reservoir depletionis characterized as a veryslow phenomenon that can beeffectively managed.Cost analyses of the value of water conﬁrm that the GreatMan-made River project is stillthe most viable option whencompared with other supplyalternatives. The project is amodel for solving the waterscarcity problems in North andNortheast Africa, particularlywhere traditional well ﬁeldsnear demand centres havebeen depleted. This may involveinternational cooperationbetween sharing states in thecase where transboundaryconditions arise.
Economic and social beneﬁtsLessons learntConclusions
ICE journal - May 2006 - Volume 159 Special Issue One - ISSN 0965 089 X.
cover 09EN.indd 528/1/11 11:48:00