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Table Of Contents

CELLS AND TISSUES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
1.1 CELLS INVOLVED IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
1.1.1 CELLULARORIGINS ^ THE PLURIPOTENT STEMCELL
1.1.2 CELLSPRINCIPALLY INVOLVED IN THE INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE
POLYMORPHONUCLEARLEUKOCYTES
NEUTROPHILS
EOSINOPHILS
BASOPHILS ANDMAST CELLS
MEGAKARYOCYTES ANDPLATELETS
1.1.3 ANTIGENPRESENTINGCELLS ANDLARGE GRANULARLYMPHOCYTES
Antigen presenting cells and large granular lymphocytes are collections of
MONOCYTES ANDMACROPHAGES
DENDRITIC CELLS
LARGE GRANULARLYMPHOCYTES
1.1.4 CELLS INVOLVED IN THE SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE
LYMPHOCYTES
TCELLS
BCELLS
1.2 LYMPHOID TISSUES
1.2.1 PRIMARYLYMPHOID TISSUES
THE THYMUS
MAMMALIAN‘‘BURSAEQUIVALENTS’’
BCELL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BONE MARROW
1.2.2 SECONDARYLYMPHOID TISSUES
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
SPLEEN
1.2.3 TERTIARYLYMPHOID TISSUES
MUCOSA-ASSOCIATEDLYMPHOID TISSUE
INTRAEPITHELIAL LYMPHOCYTES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
NOW TEST YOURSELF!
ANTIGENS AND THEIR RECEPTORS
2.1.1 FACTORS AFFECTING IMMUNOGENICITY
FOREIGNNESS
SIZE
CHEMICAL COMPLEXITY
ROUTE OFADMINISTRATION
DOSE
HOST GENETIC MAKE-UP
APPROACHES USED TO INCREASE IMMUNOGENICITY
2.2 THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX
2.2.1 CLASSI MHC MOLECULES
2.2.2 CLASS II MHC MOLECULES
2.2.3 NON-CLASSICALHLA MOLECULES
2.3 ANTIGENRECEPTORS ON CELLS
2.3.1 THEB CELL ANTIGENRECEPTOR
IMMUNOGLOBULINS
ANTIBODY STRUCTURE
ISOTYPES
2.4.1 THEORIES CONCERNING ANTIBODY DIVERSITY
2.4.2 THE GENETIC BASIS OFANTIBODY DIVERSITY
V, D AND J REGION HEAVY CHAIN GENES
THE LIGHT CHAINV AND J GENES
2.4.3 GENERATION OFANTIBODY DIVERSITY
COMBINATORIAL AND JUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY
CONTROL OF VDJ GENE REARRANGEMENT
MECHANISMS OF V(D)JREARRANGEMENT
DIVERSITY DUE TO SOMATIC MUTATION
2.4.4 ANTIBODY MATURATION
2.4.5 GENETIC BASIS OF T CELL ANTIGENRECEPTOR DIVERSITY
‘SIMILARITY TO SELF RULE’ ^ LIMITED DIVERSITY
DIVERSE TCRREPERTOIRE
GENOMIC ORGANISATION ^ THE TCR CHAIN
2.4.6 GENERATION OF TCELL ANTIGENRECEPTORDIVERSITY
SIZE OF THE TCELL REPERTOIRE
THE INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE
3.1 THE COMPLEMENT CASCADES
3.1.1 THE CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY
C1
C4
C2
C3
3.1.2 THE ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY
3.1.3 THE LECTINPATHWAY
3.1.4 THE MEMBRANE ATTACKCOMPLEX
3.1.5 REGULATION OF COMPLEMENTACTIVATION
C1INHIBITOR (C1INH)
REGULATORS OF COMPLEMENTACTIVATION (RCA) FAMILY
REGULATORS OF THE MEMBRANE ATTACKCOMPLEX
3.2 PHAGOCYTOSIS
COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR 3 (CR3)
CD14
TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS
MACROPHAGE SCAVENGER RECEPTORS
3.2.2 OPSONISATION
3.2.3 INGESTION
3.2.4 DIGESTION
3.2.5 THE RESPIRATORY BURST
3.2.6 OTHER ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF LYSOSOMES
DEFENSINS
3.3.2 CELLULAR RESPONSES IN INFLAMMATION
3.3.3 CHEMOKINES
3.4 HAEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS
3.4.1 REGULATION OF COAGULATION
3.4.2 THE FIBRINOLYTIC SYSTEM
THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE
molecule
4.2 ANTIGENPROCESSING AND PRESENTATIONBYCD1
4.2.1 STRUCTURE OFCD1
4.3 CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
4.3.1 ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC TCELL STIMULATION
TCELL RESPONSES TO ANTIGEN STIMULATION
4.3.2 OTHER CELLS IN CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
MECHANISMS OF TARGET CELL DEATH
CYTOTOXIC TCELLS
MACROPHAGES
4.4 B CELL ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
4.4.1 B CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND ANTIBODY PRODUCTION
CLASS SWITCHING
4.5 LYMPHOCYTE MEMORY
4.6 THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE RESPONSE
4.6.1 STRUCTURE OF THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
ORGANISED MUCOSAL LYMPHOID TISSUE
INTRA-EPITHELIAL CELLS
LEUKOCYTES IN THE LAMINA PROPRIA
4.6.2 IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND MUCOSAL IMMUNITY
PRODUCTION OF OTHER IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN THE MUCOSA
4.6.3 THE MUCOSAE AND THEIRROLE IN IMMUNITY
4.7 TOLERANCE
4.7.1 LYMPHOCYTE TOLERANCE
INDUCTION TIME
ANTIGENPERSISTENCE
DURATION
4.7.2 MECHANISMS OF TOLERANCE INDUCTION
CLONAL DELETION
CLONAL ANERGY
CLONAL EXHAUSTION
CLONAL ABORTION
ANTIBODY FORMING CELL (AFC) BLOCKADE
4.7.3 MAINTENANCE OF TOLERANCE
REGULATORY TCELLS
ANTIBODY-INDUCED TOLERANCE
ABNORMALITIES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
5.1 HYPERSENSITIVITY
5.1.1 HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
5.1.2 TYPE I HYPERSENSITIVITY
REGULATION OF TYPE IHYPERSENSITIVITY
HUMORAL EVENTS IN ALLERGY
5.1.4 TYPEIIIHYPERSENSITIVITY
TUBERCULIN-TYPEDTH
GRANULOMA FORMATION
CONTACT HYPERSENSITIVITY
5.2 AUTOIMMUNITYAND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
5.2.1 CAUSES OFAUTOIMMUNITY
GENETIC FACTORS IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
SEX-LINKED FACTORS IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
STRESS AND NEUROCHEMICALS IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
CHEMICALS AND PHARMACEUTICALS IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
VIRUSES IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
ANTIGENMIMICRY
B CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
CYTOKINE DEFECTS
CHEMOKINES IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
5.3 IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES
5.3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES
5.3.2 PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES
5.3.3 B CELL ABNORMALITIES
SELECTIVE IMMUNOGLOBULINA DEFICIENCY
X-LINKED AGAMMAGLOBULINAEMIA (XLA)
X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE (DUNCAN’S SYNDROME)
5.3.4 T CELL ABNORMALITIES
CONGENITALTHYMIC APLASIA (DIGEORGE SYNDROME)
WISKOTT^ALDRICH SYNDROME
5.3.5 T ANDB CELL ABNORMALITIES
SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASE (SCID)
SCID WITH ADENOSINE DEAMINASE DEFICIENCY (ADA-SCID)
THE BARE LYMPHOCYTE SYNDROME
5.3.6 ABNORMALITIES ASSOCIATED WITHPHAGOCYTIC CELLS
CHEDIAK^HIGASHI SYNDROME (CHS)
CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE (CGD)
5.3.7 ABNORMALITIES OF THE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY
DEFICIENCIES OF COMPLEMENT COMPONENTS
THE ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY
THE CLASSICAL PATHWAY
5.3.8 ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCIES
IATROGENIC IMMUNODEFICIENCIES
5.3.9 THE ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)
THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)
INFECTION, IMMUNITY, IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS
6.1 THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEMININFECTION
6.1.1 THE SKIN
6.1.2 THE MUCOSAE
6.1.3 PROTECTIVE CHEMICALS
LYSOZYME
COMPLEMENT
NATURAL ANTIBODIES
6.1.4 THE ROLE OF NORMAL BODYFLORA
6.2 INFECTION ^ THE ROLE OF THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM
6.2.1 ATTACHMENT
6.2.2 THE BODY’SRESPONSE TO INVASION ^ FEVER
6.2.3 CELLS INVOLVED ININNATE IMMUNITY ININFECTION
PHAGOCYTIC CELLS
NATURAL KILLERCELLS
PLATELETS
6.2.4 INFLAMMATION AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY
ENDOTOXIN
ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED INJURY
6.3 INFECTION ^ THE ROLE OF THE SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE
6.3.1 INTRACELLULARPATHOGENS ANDFUNGI
6.3.2 PARASITIC INFECTIONS
6.3.3 THE ROLE OFANTIBODY INIMMUNITY TO INFECTION
OPSONISATION
COMPLEMENTACTIVATION
TOXINNEUTRALISATION
VIRUS NEUTRALISATION
INHIBITIONOF MICROBIAL ENZYME ACTIVITY
INHIBITIONOF MICROBIAL GROWTH
6.3.4 PATHOLOGY DUE TO SPECIFIC ANTIBODY
POLYCLONALBCELL ACTIVATION
IMMUNE COMPLEX FORMATION
6.3.5 T CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
PARASITIC INFECTIONS
VIRAL INFECTIONS
CYTOTOXIC TCELL ACTIVITY
CYTOLYTICMECHANISMS
6.3.6 PATHOLOGYCAUSEDBY THE CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE
6.4 CYTOKINES INIMMUNITY TO INFECTION
IMMUNITY AND THE MHC
7.1 TRANSPLANTATION
7.1.1 TISSUE TYPING
7.1.2 CROSS-MATCHING
7.1.3 REJECTION
DIRECTALLORECOGNITION
INDIRECTALLORECOGNITION
MECHANISMS INVOLVED INHYPERACUTE REJECTION
MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN ACUTE REJECTION
MECHANISMS INVOLVED INCHRONICREJECTION
THE ROLE OF THE GRAFT ENDOTHELIUMINREJECTION
7.1.4 KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION
PRE-SENSITISATION
CADAVERICKIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION
7.1.5 LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
PROCEDURE
PRIMARY NON-FUNCTION ANDREJECTION
7.1.6 HEART TRANSPLANTATION
REJECTION
7.1.7 BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION
7.1.8 PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION
7.1.9 XENOTRANSPLANTATION
CHOICE OFDONOR
BARRIERS TOXENOTRANSPLANTATION
7.2 THE IMMUNOLOGYOF REPRODUCTION
7.2.1 THE DEVELOPMENT OFMATERNAL ANDFOETALTISSUES
7.2.2 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY
7.2.3 MATERNAL^FOETAL EXCHANGE
7.2.4 EFFECT OFPREGNANCYON THE MATERNAL IMMUNE RESPONSE
PERIPHERAL IMMUNITY
FOETAL^UTERINE IMMUNITY
7.2.5 CYTOKINE^ENDOCRINE RELATIONSHIP INPREGNANCY
OESTROGEN ANDPROGESTERONE
HUMANCHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN
7.2.6 IMMUNITY TO INFECTIONINPREGNANCY
7.2.7 IMMUNOCOMPETENT CELLS IN THE DECIDUA
DECIDUAL ANTIGENPRESENTINGCELLS
TLYMPHOCYTES
7.2.8 RECURRENT, SPONTANEOUS, ABORTION
7.2.9 THE IMMUNOLOGYOFMALE REPRODUCTION
IMMUNOLOGICALLYACTIVE CELLS IN SEMEN
OTHER DISEASES
8.1 ATHEROSCLEROSIS
8.1.1 NORMAL ARTERIAL WALL
8.1.2 EXTRACELLULARMATRIX
8.1.3 PATHOGENESIS OFATHEROSCLEROSIS
ROLE OF LIPOPROTEINS IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS
8.1.4 PLAQUE DEVELOPMENT
8.1.6 MONONUCLEAR CELLS IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS ^ TCELLS
8.1.7 MONONUCLEAR CELLS IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS ^ B CELLS
8.1.8 OTHER IMMUNE CELLS IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES
8.1.9 CYTOKINES IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS
8.1.10 IS ATHEROSCLEROSIS AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE?
POTENTIAL AUTOANTIGENS
8.1.11 INFECTION AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS
8.2 TUMOUR IMMUNOLOGY
8.2.1 THE NATURE OF MALIGNANT DISEASE
8.2.2 CAUSES OF MALIGNANCY
PHYSICAL CARCINOGENS
CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS
VIRAL CARCINOGENS
ONCOGENES
8.2.3 TUMOUR ANTIGENS
MELANOMA^MELANOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGENS (MMDAS)
CANCER TESTES ANTIGENS (CTAS)
RENAL CARCINOMA ANTIGEN
NON-MUTATED SHARED ANTIGENS
MUTATED ANTIGENS
8.2.4 TUMOUR SUPPRESSOR GENE ^ ONCOGENE NETWORKS
8.2.5 TUMOUR IMMUNOLOGY
INNATE IMMUNITY
INFLAMMATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER
TUMOUR CELL EVASION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
8.2.6 CANCERBIOTHERAPY
ANTI-TUMOUR VACCINES
ANTI-IDIOTYPIC ANTIBODIES
BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE MODIFIERS (BRM)
ANSWERS TO ‘‘NOW TEST YOURSELF!’’
INDEX
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Eales.Immunology.For.Life.Scientists

Eales.Immunology.For.Life.Scientists

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Published by Rajesh Murali

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Published by: Rajesh Murali on Feb 14, 2011
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