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Carrier Offset Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Based on CAZAC Sequences

Carrier Offset Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Based on CAZAC Sequences

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Published by ijcsis
The combination of Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is regarded as a winning technology for future broadband communication. However, its sensitivity to Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) is a major contributor to the Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI), this effect becomes more severe by the presence of multipath fading in wireless channels. This paper is concerned with CFO estimation for MIMO-OFDM system. The presented algorithm uses a two-step strategy. In the proposed method a preamble structure is used which made up of repeated orthogonal polyphase sequences such as Zadoff and Chu sequences. Both of them belong to the class of Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation (CAZAC) sequences. The repeated preambles that are constructed using a CAZAC code are simultaneously transmitted from all transmit antennas to accomplish frequency offset estimation. Simulation results show the robustness, accuracy and time-efficiency of the proposed algorithm compared to existing similar algorithms that use PN codes especially in multi-path channel.
The combination of Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is regarded as a winning technology for future broadband communication. However, its sensitivity to Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) is a major contributor to the Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI), this effect becomes more severe by the presence of multipath fading in wireless channels. This paper is concerned with CFO estimation for MIMO-OFDM system. The presented algorithm uses a two-step strategy. In the proposed method a preamble structure is used which made up of repeated orthogonal polyphase sequences such as Zadoff and Chu sequences. Both of them belong to the class of Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation (CAZAC) sequences. The repeated preambles that are constructed using a CAZAC code are simultaneously transmitted from all transmit antennas to accomplish frequency offset estimation. Simulation results show the robustness, accuracy and time-efficiency of the proposed algorithm compared to existing similar algorithms that use PN codes especially in multi-path channel.

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11/07/2011

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
1
 , 201
1
 
.
 
Carrier Offset Estimation for MIMO-OFDM
 
Based onCAZAC Sequences
 
Dina Samaha
*, 
Sherif Kishk 
,
Fayez Zaki
 
 Department of electronics and communications engineering Mansoura University, Egypt 
*
d_samaha@hotmail.com
 
 Abstract 
 — 
The combination of Multi-Input Multi-Output(MIMO) with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM) is regarded as a winning technology for futurebroadband communication. However, its sensitivity to CarrierFrequency Offset (CFO) is a major contributor to the Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI), this effect becomes more severe by thepresence of multipath fading in wireless channels. This paper isconcerned with CFO estimation for MIMO-OFDM system. Thepresented algorithm uses a two-step strategy. In the proposedmethod a preamble structure is used which made up of repeatedorthogonal polyphase sequences such as Zadoff and Chusequences. Both of them belong to the class of ConstantAmplitude Zero Auto-Correlation (CAZAC) sequences. Therepeated preambles that are constructed using a CAZAC codeare simultaneously transmitted from all transmit antennas toaccomplish frequency offset estimation. Simulation results showthe robustness, accuracy and time-efficiency of the proposedalgorithm compared to existing similar algorithms that use PNcodes especially in multi-path channel.
 Keywords-— 
 
CFO, MIMO, OFDM, Zadoff-Chu sequences.
 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Nowadays, the limitations of modulation schemes in existingcommunication systems have become an obstruction in further increasing the data rate. Orthogonal Frequency DivisionMultiplexing (OFDM) is a promising modulation techniqueused in a wide range of communications systems. A keyaspect of OFDM is the overlapping of individual orthogonalsub-carriers which leads to efficient spectral efficiency. Oneadvantage of OFDM is that it reduces the effect of multipathenvironments.
 
Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) wirelesssystem is a system that is equipped with multiple antennas attransmitter and receiver, takes spectral efficiency to a newlevel. MIMO systems are an efficient method to enhance datatransmission rate requiring no extra bandwidth in richscattering environments. The combination of OFDM andMIMO technologies referred to as MIMO-OFDM is a winningcombination for wireless technology [1]. MIMO-OFDM hasgained more and more interests in recent
 
years. Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) is caused by the Doppler effect of thechannel or the mismatch between the transmitter and receiver.In OFDM systems, CFO destroys the orthogonality betweenthe subcarriers, hence results in Inter Carrier Interference (ICI)and performance degradation. As the core technique is OFDM,MIMO-OFDM systems are much more sensitive to frequencysynchronization errors. Therefore, these errors must beaccurately estimated and compensated in order to avoid severeerror rates. The synchronization techniques for single-inputsingle-output (SISO) OFDM either exploit the inherentstructure of the OFDM symbol using the cyclic prefix partwithout bandwidth overhead [2]. This approach relies only inthe redundancy introduced by the cyclic prefix. Other techniques use specifically designed training symbolsconsisting of repeated parts [2-4]. Moose [3] proposed aMaximum Likelihood (ML) estimator which can correct theCFO after Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of two identicaltraining symbols. He also described how to increase theestimation range by using shorter training symbols, on theexpense of reducing estimation accuracy. Schmidl and Cox[4] concluded that a first symbol is sent with two identicalhalves which lead to easier detection based on correlation properties. That is when the CFO is partially corrected in thefirst training phase, a second training symbol is sent to correctthe remaining frequency offset. Tufvesson et al. [5] proposedan approach for frequency offset estimation using Pseudo- Noise (PN) sequence that can correct frequency offset withlarge estimation range. Recent works tackled the CFO proplem in MIMO-OFDM systems [6-9]. Mody and Stuber [6]applied a scheme using orthogonal polyphase sequences astraining sequence, to estimate fine frequency offsets in timedomain and coarse frequency offsets in frequency domain.Schenk and Van Zelst [7] extended Moose's method usingrepeated sequence with constant envelope as orthogonaltraining sequence to realize coarse and fine frequencysynchronization in one step
 
in time domain. Yao and Tung-Sang [8] proposed frequency offset estimation in MIMOsystems assuming that the frequency offset between thetransmit and receive antennas is different, whereas time delayis the same. RecentlyLiming[9] proposed frequencysynchronization scheme using repeated (PN) as trainingsequences to correct CFO.In this study an algorithm is proposed based on the idea of [9] which aims to apply its frequency synchronizationalgorithm for MIMO-OFDM system, using a modified preamble consists of training symbol of constant envelopeorthogonal codes with good periodic correlation properties,such as Frank-Zadoff [10] and Chu [11] sequences. Zadoff-
19 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
1
 , 201
1
 
Rx1Tx1TxN
t
Tx2Rx2RxNr
Chu sequences possess good correlation properties which areessential in a variety of engineering applications such asestablishing synchronization, performing channel estimationand reducing peak-to-average power ratio. The use of thesesequences leads to better frequency offset estimation at eachtransmitting antenna under the assumption of perfect timingsynchronization.In the proposed method CFO is compensated in two stages,at first CFO correction is performed in an acquisition stage, but there will still be existing residual CFO that has to becompensated. To remove these CFO residuals a tracking stageis implanted.
 
The paper is organized as follows .Section
ΙΙ
describes thesystem model. In section
ΙΙΙ
frequency synchronization preamble structure is explained in conjunction with propertiesof Zadoff and Chu sequences. The proposed frequency offsetestimation algorithm is explained in section IV. System performance is evaluated through computer simulation insection V. Conclusion remarks are presented in section VI.
II.
 
S
YSTEM
M
ODEL
 
A general MIMO-OFDM system comprising
 N 
 
transmitter antennas and
 N 
 
receiver antennas is depicted in Fig. 1
.
 
Fig.1. MIMO-OFDM system block diagram
.The received signal on the
th
receive antenna is described inequation (1), supposing that time has been synchronizedcorrectly
)(exp)()(
}2{1,
nwn shn
 Ln jq N qq
+=
=
ε π 
 
(1)Where
 s
q
(n)
is the synchronization training sequencetransmitted on
q
th
transmit antenna,
w(n)
is the AWGN on the
q
th
receive antenna,
ε 
is the frequency offset factor,
 L
is thelength of the training sequence, and
h
q,l 
 
is the channel gain between the
q
th
transmit antenna and the
th
receive antenna .Inthe present study the same frequency offset for each transmitand receive antenna pair has been assumed .
III.
 
S
EQUENCE
A
NALYSIS
 
The main contribution of the proposed frequencysynchronization algorithm is implementation of Zadoff andChu sequences as synchronization sequences. Both of thesesequences are considered as Constant Amplitude ZeroAutocorrelation (CAZAC) sequences. The proposed frequencysynchronization algorithm uses the good correlation propertyof CAZAC sequences. It is worthwhile to
 
mention thatcomplexity of polyphase and PN sequences could becompared using two different perspectives .First, a polyphasesequence in frequency domain is also a polyphase sequence intime domain, in other word Zadoff-Chu sequence is alsoZadoff-Chu sequence after FFT which can help even in theimplementation. Second, the frequency domain correlation of a PN sequence cannot give reliable sequence detection. Thus,keeping in mind the above mentioned comparison it has beendecided to choose polyphase sequences as the basic sequencein the proposed study.
 A.
 
 Frank-Zadoff code sequence
It is defined as cyclic shifted orthogonal code with good periodic correlation properties for preamble sequences. Frank-Zadoff code was described as a more general form of another code introduced by Heimiller [12]
.
For a code sequence of length
 L,
{
 s
0
 , s
1
 , s
2
... s
 L-1
}, the complex cyclic correlationfunction is defined as:
10*
=+
=
 Lnnini
 s s x
(2)
 
note that
 s
*
denotes the complex conjugate of 
 s
,
 Lmm
 s s
+
=
  because it is a cyclic code.
 
For 
i
= 0, the value of 
 x
i
reaches itsmaximum:
2100
=
=
 Lnn
 s x
 (3)On the other hand, for 
10
<
 Li
the values of 
 x
i
 
should bezero. That means each code is orthogonal to its own phaseshifted version. 
 B.
 
Chu sequence
The autocorrelation function of Chu sequences is known to be zero except at the lag of an integer multiple of the sequencelength. The length of Zadoff codes is restricted to perfectsquares. But, Chu sequences have the same correlation properties and can be constructed for any code length. A set of Chu sequence with length
 L
is considered as
n
 , 0 < n < L-1
,where the
th
 
element of 
n
,
n
(k)
, is defined as:
n
(k)
 
=
+
odd  Leven L
 Lnk  j Lnk  j
 ; ; 
)exp()exp(
)1(
2
π π 
 
(4)
OFDMModNt
 
OFDM
DemodNr
OFDM
Demod 2
MIMODecoder
Source
MIMOcoding
OFDMMod 1
OFDMMod 1
OFDM
Demod 1
Sink 
 
20 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
1
 , 201
1
 
00
C.
 
 Preamble design
The data packet is preceded by a section of pre-defined data, preamble, which is constructed using a repeated CAZAC code.Each transmitter transmits the same code, but with differentcyclic shifts. The preamble is followed by a data transmissionon all transmitters. The advantage of this MIMO preamble isthat it takes only as much time as a SISO preamble and it isindependent of the number of transmitting antennas. For the proposed frequency synchronization algorithm a repetition of the CAZAC training sequence is considered. The trainingsequences from different transmit antennas have to beorthogonal to each other for at least the maximum channeldelay length to preserve orthogonality.
Fig.2. MIMO-OFDM system preamble schematic diagram using 2transmitting antennas
Fig. 2 shows an example of preamble including a CAZACsequence repetition with N
 
 periods for 2 transmitters MIMOsystem. It is transmitted twice by 2 transmitterssimultaneously with a different cyclic shift.
IV.
 
F
REQUENCY
S
YNCHRONIZATION
A
LGORITHM
 
The proposed CFO estimation specifies a unique trainingsequence at each transmit antenna to designate the antennasand estimate the CFO. Chu and Zadoff sequences are adoptedas training sequences in different transmit antenna with their shift and orthogonal properties. Assume the length of trainingsequence is
 L
, and the period length of Chu or Zadoff sequence is
 N 
, then
M=L/N 
.
is positive integer pointed tonumber of Chu or Zadoff sequences contained in the trainingsequence. Generally CFO estimation will be switched between two operation modes, the first called acquisitionmode and the other is tracking mode. In the acquisition mode,a wide range of CFO can be estimated and the remainingCFO should be much less than half of the space betweensubcarriers. During the tracking mode only small frequencyfluctuations will be dealt with
 A.
 
CFO Acquisition
CFO acquisition is performed only once when thetransmissions begin. Therefore, the time of acquisition is notcritical. When there is no channel fading and noise, therelationship between corresponding samples from differentChu or Zadoff sequences in a received training sequence onthe same antenna is given by:
)exp()(
2
 N  L g  jn
ε π 
 
(5)
)1,0(
 
),,1(
 
 gN  Ln Nr 
 Where g is the correlation period (the number of Chu or Zadoff sequences) denoting the distance between twocorrelated samples .The CFO can be estimated as:
)(2
 g 
angle gN  L
φ π ε 
×=
,
)1,1(
¡ 
 g 
(6)Where
 g 
φ 
is defined as
:
= =
+
=
 N  gN  Ln g 
n gN n
1*1 _  _ 0
)(
)(
φ 
 
(7)
 
In (6),
ε 
is estimated with single “g”. This kind of estimatorsis named as single-g estimators. They are adopted for CFOacquisition, the estimation range is
 gN  L
2
<
ε 
.
 B.
 
CFO Tracking 
For different “
 g 
”, multiple different single-g estimators can be used together in estimating CFO to improve estimationaccuracy. This is called as multiple-g estimator. The number of used “g” will be pointed to by parameter “m”. Onemultiple-g estimator is given by:
=
××=
m j j g 
m N  g angle L
 j
11
)2()(
π φ ε 
(8)Where: )1,1(
¢ 
m
 
,
)1,1(
£ 
,....,,
321
 g  g  g  g 
m
 The estimation range of multiple-g estimator is
),....,,max(2
21
m
 g  g  g  N   L
<
ε 
. The estimation error of onemultiple-g estimator may be much smaller than each single-gestimator used by it, especially when all these single-gestimators have the same or close accuracy.
V.
 
S
IMULATION
ESULTS
 
In order to examine the synchronization performance,number of simulation experiments will be performed for the proposed synchronization scheme and that described in [9]. Results reported here arecarried out using Matlab
©
. There area number of parameters that describe the system. In thesimulations, the following parameters are held constant:(1) Length of the training sequences:
 L
= 1024.(2) Normalized CFO factor=0.5, that uniformly distributedwithin ±0.5 subcarrier spacing.(3) The multipath channel consists of six paths that haveuniformly distributed delays over the interval [0, 2π].(4) Results are calculated for a 6x6 MIMO-OFDM systemunder the assumption of ideal modulation.datadata
 
NN
Time (sample)
 
TX2TX1
21 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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