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Resource Estimation And Reservation For Handoff Calls In Wireless Mobile Networks

Resource Estimation And Reservation For Handoff Calls In Wireless Mobile Networks

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Published by ijcsis
The main aim of future wireless multimedia networks is to provide sufficient amount of resource to a multimedia call. Reserving required amount of resource in advance to a future new and handoff call is better than rejecting a call at neck of the moment due to insufficient resource at a particular time. This paper presents an efficient handoff resource management strategy by considering the future resource demands of a wireless multimedia call. Here a novel wiener based resource estimation and reservation method is adopted to estimate the instantaneous resource demands of a mobile user. Cell segmentation technique is introduced and utilized to predict the resource demands more accurately in a real time manner. The performance result shows this synergy of resource reservation using pilot sensing and cell segmentation have been decrease the call dropping probability of the handoff calls and increases the micro and pico cellular system performance in real time environments.
The main aim of future wireless multimedia networks is to provide sufficient amount of resource to a multimedia call. Reserving required amount of resource in advance to a future new and handoff call is better than rejecting a call at neck of the moment due to insufficient resource at a particular time. This paper presents an efficient handoff resource management strategy by considering the future resource demands of a wireless multimedia call. Here a novel wiener based resource estimation and reservation method is adopted to estimate the instantaneous resource demands of a mobile user. Cell segmentation technique is introduced and utilized to predict the resource demands more accurately in a real time manner. The performance result shows this synergy of resource reservation using pilot sensing and cell segmentation have been decrease the call dropping probability of the handoff calls and increases the micro and pico cellular system performance in real time environments.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
1
 , 2011
Resource Estimation and Reservationfor Handoff Calls in Wireless Mobile Networks
K.Venkatachalam (Corresponding author)
Department of ECE,Velalar College of Engineering and Technology,Thindal post, Erode – 638012 , Tamilnadu, India.venki_kv@yahoo.com
Dr.P.Balasubramanie
Department of CSEKongu Engineering College, Perundurai,Erode, Tamilnadu , Indiapbalu_20032001@yahoo.co.inline
 Abstract
— The main aim of future wireless multimedia networksis to provide sufficient amount of resource to a multimedia call.Reserving required amount of resource in advance to a futurenew and handoff call is better than rejecting a call at neck of themoment due to insufficient resource at a particular time. Thispaper presents an efficient handoff resource managementstrategy by considering the future resource demands of a wirelessmultimedia call. Here a novel wiener based resource estimationand reservation method is adopted to estimate the instantaneousresource demands of a mobile user. Cell segmentation techniqueis introduced and utilized to predict the resource demands moreaccurately in a real time manner. The performance result showsthis synergy of resource reservation using pilot sensing and cellsegmentation have been decrease the call dropping probability of the handoff calls and increases the micro and pico cellular systemperformance in real time environments.Keywords-component; Handoff(HO), Resource Estimation(RE),Resource Reservation(RR), Cell Segmentation (CS), CallDropping Probability (CDP), Wireless Multimedia Networks(WMN).
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Resource allocation is done to ensure an efficient use of resources in the wireless network. Radio resource allocation incellular mobile system focuses mainly to improve the useradmission capability and protecting the connection continuity.Handoff (HO) is an operation in which Mobile Unit (MU)communicating with one wireless Base Transceiver Station(BTS) is transferred to another base transceiver station during acall. A wireless mobile call in progress could be forced toabort during handoff, if it cannot be allocated sufficient amountof resources in the new wireless cell. A cell is the radiocoverage area of a wireless base transceiver station. Presentwireless cellular systems are employed with mobile assistedsoft handoff technique for handoff operation. Handoffs arecritical in cellular mobile system because neighboring cells arealways using a disjoint subset of frequency bands. Hencenegotiations must take place between mobile units, the currentserving base transceiver station and the next potential basetransceiver station.Reserving resources for future handoff calls and new callsis an effective way to reduce the handoff call dropping and newcall blocking probability. Predicting and reserving resources forfuture calls can be classified into two types. They are local andcollaborative methods[1]-[5]. Existing collaborative and localmethods for resource reservation requires each base transceiverstation to gather real time information on the behaviors of mobile units in neighboring cells. Such information mayinclude how many users are expected to be handoff and serviceclass of multimedia call in the neighboring cells at a giventime. Local methods [6]-[8] assumes that every call requires thesame bandwidth, the call arrival process is poisson, and the callholding time and a particular call channel holding time in eachcell is exponentially distributed. Service class of a multimediacall mainly deals with how much amount of resource requiredfor each call request. In the real time environments gatheringthe above information in a very short duration is very difficultone.The mobility-dependent predictive resource reservation(MDPRR) scheme and an admission control scheme areproposed in [9] based on common handoff procedure toprovide flexible usage of scarce resource in mobile multimediawireless networks. NPS(neural-network prediction scheme) isproposed in [10] to provide high accurate location prediction of a MH (mobile host) in wireless networks. In order to avoid tooearly or over reservation resulting in a waste of resources, athree-times resource-reservation scheme (TTRR) is alsoproposed .The work in [11] is based on application of multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) multiplicative autoregressive-integrated-moving average (ARIMA) (p,d,q)x(P,D,Q)s modelsfitted to the traffic data measured in the considered cell itself and on the new call admission control (CAC) algorithm thatsimultaneously maximizes the system throughput whilekeeping the handoff call dropping probability (CDP) below thetargeted value. The mobility-aided adaptive resourcereservation (MARR) with admission control (AC) based on celldivision , to provide better usage of scarce resource in wirelessmultimedia networks is proposed in [12]. The effect of pre-reservation area size on handoff performance in wirelesscellular networks are discussed in [13]. It shows that if thereserved channels are strictly mapped to the MSs that made thecorresponding reservations, as we increase the pre-reservationarea size, the system performance (in terms of the probability
53 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
1
 , 2011
that the handoff calls are dropped) improves initially. Theoptimal pre-reservation area size is closely related to the trafficload of the network and the MSs’ mobility pattern (movingspeed).II.
 
LIMITATIONS
 
OF
 
AVAILABLE
 
METHODSExisting local and collaborative methods for predicting andreserving resources for future handoff calls and new calls arenot much suitable for wireless multimedia networks. This isbecause of the following reasons.The amount of resource required to successfully handoff acall may vary over a wide range in a multimedia wirelessnetworks. For example, data and video application calls mayrequire different service quality levels and consequently requiredifferent amount of resources in order to ensure a successfulhandoff. Wireless networks are often consist of large number of micro and pico cells (i.e., very small radius cells). In suchnetworks, handoff becomes more frequent, handoff call arrivalsmay be non-poisson and non-stationary for extended periods of time, and a handoff call channel holing time distribution insideeach cell can be arbitrary. Even in macro cellular networks,handoff call arrivals may often be non-poisson and non-stationary for extended periods of time. For example, handoff call arrival rates will vary with the number of mobile users,user mobility pattern and network configuration.Speed of mobile units may vary widely and mobile usersmay stay in a particular micro or pico cell for very short timeperiods. Hence gathering real-time information on currentstatus and behaviors of mobile units in other cells andcommunicating such information among base transceiverstations in a timely fashion will increases the systemcomplexity and cost.The limitations of existing methods caused primarily by,they do not model the resource demands of handoff calls andnew calls directly. In a real multimedia wireless networks,number of factors can impact the resource demands of futurehandoff calls and new calls. They include cell sizes, network configuration, number of mobile units in each cell, speed andmobility pattern of mobile units, types of services supported ineach cell, types of services used by each mobile unit at anygiven time, arrival processes of new and handoff calls, call andchannel holding times, etc. These factors often have a complexcorrelation and the set of the factors often changes over time.Consequently, modeling these factors can be difficult,especially when only local information is available. This isprimarily why most existing collaborative and local methodscan only handle poisson and stationary call arrivals, andrequires each radio channel to have the same capacity.In this work a new class of Cell Segmentation (CS) basednew call and handoff call resource estimation and reservationmethod is proposed. This overcomes some of the criticallimitations of existing methods by modeling the instantaneousamount of resource demands directly. The proposed RERmethod uses pilot sensing method to gather information. Thismethod perform well for new and handoff call arrival processesare non-poisson and non-stationary and each call requests anarbitrary amount of resources i.e. limit allowed by the network and has non-exponentially distributed call and channel holdingtimes.III.
 
KEY
 
FEATURES
 
OF
 
PROPOSED
 
RESOURCE
 
ESTIMATION
 
AND
 
RESERVATION
 
(RER)
 
METHODHere a new class of dynamic resource estimation andreservation method for supporting multimedia call is proposed.The proposed RER method has the following properties.
 
 Localized prediction
: Each base transceiver stationuses local available information from neighboringcells to determine dynamically how much resourceshould be reserved for future handoff calls and newcalls. It communicate with other base transceiverstations for resource reservation decision, dependsupon Predetermined Time Interval (PTI).
 
 Modeling instantaneous demands directly
: Theproposed method models the instantaneous values of resource demands directly by using cell segmentation.It also enables to predict instantaneous and averagefuture demands, while other existing methods cantypically predict only average demands.
 
 Multimedia call resource estimation and reservation
:The proposed method estimates the future resourcedemands of each individual service class of multimedia call directly. It can also estimate the totalamount of resource required for handoff calls and newcalls of all service classes of a multimedia call.
 
Simplicity
: The proposed method is much simpler toimplement in real time and existing networks.IV.
 
PROPOSED
 
RESOURCE
 
ESTIMATION
 
AND
 
RESERVATION
 
METHODThe proposed resource reservation method for handoff callsis shown in Figure 1 and is a self explanatory one. When amobile unit is approaching towards the cell boundary, itsposition and velocity are monitored. By using this, itsremaining time in the current cell is calculated. Once this timefalls below the threshold value called Resource ReservationInterval (RRI), then an new channel reservation request is sentto the test or target cell.If there are free or ideal channels in the target cell,then one channel is immediately reserved. At the same time,the channel is locked and temporarily disabled for other usagein the target cell. If the target cell has no free channels, then thereservation request waits for predetermined time interval.When a channel is released in the target cell within PTI, thenthat free channel is assigned for demand request. If there is noreservation request arrives then the released channel is remainsfree until the next channel request arrives. When a mobile unitends its call connection in the current cell, but moving towardsthe target cell, in this case, a reservation cancellation request isforwarded to the target cell. Upon receiving the cancellationrequest, the target cell releases the locked channel or clears thereservation request.
54 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
 , No.
1
 , 2011
Figure 1. Proposed Handoff Call Resource Reservation MethodFigure 2. Flow Chart for Resource Reservation / Release Operations
RC
R
- Reserved Resource CapacityRC
Rmax
- Maximum Reserved Resource CapacityS - Number of reservationsWhen the mobile unit enters the target cell, handoff will besuccessful only if a channel has been reserved to take it over, orblocked if its reservation request is not yet processed. In theformer case, the mobile unit continues its call, on the newchannel until leaving or call completion, while in the later case,the call is forced into termination. A new call is accepted onlyif a free channel exists upon its arrival. Otherwise it is blockedand cleared from the system i.e. in the channel servers. For newcalls, there is no need of resource reservation. Once freechannels are available, and then connection is established.Otherwise the caller has to wait until the availability of freechannels in the current cell. But for handoff calls, the resourcereservation in advance is a mandatory one.V.
 
FLOWCHART
 
FOR
 
RESOURCE
 
RESERVATION/ 
 
RELEASE
 
OPERATIONSThe flow chart for channel reservation /release operation isshown in Figure 2.
 
The reserved resource capacity RC
R
(S) is initially setat X
0
and Base Station Controller (BSC) waits forreservation request.
 
When a channel reservation is requested by mobileunit, the associated BSC accept the request, if thenumber of reservations ‘S’ in BSC is smaller than thepredetermined maximum value of S, S
max
.
 
In the case of acceptance of the reservation request,the BSC increases ‘S’ by one and increases RC
R
(S)by X
S
. Which can be properly set at a different valuefor each ‘S’, if the reserved capacity RC
R
(S) is lessthan the RC
Rmax
. Otherwise the RC
R
(S) is set at RC
R
max.
 
When the release of the reserved channel capacity isrequested, the BSC decreases ‘S’ by one and RC
R
(S)by X
S+1
, if RC
R
(S) is less than the RC
Rmax
, otherwiseRC
R
(S) is remains at RC
Rmax
.This method of pilot sensing reservation mechanismreduces the unnecessary blocking of new calls and dropping of the hand of calls. Since the system capacity depends on the newcall blocking and handoff call droppings. The system capacityis limited by new call blocking if the new call blockingprobability is higher than the weighted sum of the handoff callfailure probability. If the weighted sum of the handoff callfailure probability is higher than the new call blockingprobability, the excursive handoff call failure probability limitsthe system capacity.The system capacity is maximum, when the new callblocking probability is equal to the weighted sum of thehandoff dropping probability. To keep a balance between thenew call blocking and the handoff call dropping probability,this method controls the size of the minimum reservationcapacity X
o
by counting the number of new call blocking andhandoff call droppings. For resource reservation, new calls andhandoff calls are taken into account, and the Markov modelshown in Figure 4 can be used to reduce the computationalcomplexity.
55 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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