III. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OFCOCATENATED CODES
Consider a linear
(n,k)
code
C
with coderate
R
c
= k/n
and minimum distance
h
m
. Anupper bound on the biterror rate [
BER
] of the code
C
over memoryless binaryinputchannels, with coherent detection, usingmaximum likelihood decoding, can beobtained as [4]
n k
BER
≤
Σ
Σ
(
w/k
)
A
cw,h
D
(
R
c
E
b
/ N
o
, h
)
h=
d
min
w=1
(5)where
E
b
/N
o
is the signaltonoise ratio perbit, and
A
cw,h
for the code
C
represents thenumber of codewords of the code withoutput weight
h
associated with an inputsequence of weight
w
.
A
cw,h
is the input–output weight coefficient (IOWC).Thefunction
D(.)
represents the pairwise errorprobability which is a monotonic decreasingfunction of the signal to noise ratio and theoutput weight
h
. For AWGN channels wehave
D
(
R
c
E
b
/ N
o
, h
) =
Q(
√
2
R
c
h E
b
/ N
o
)
.
For fading channels, assuming coherentdetection, and perfect Channel Stateinformation (CSI), the fading samples
μ
i
arei.i.d. random variables with
Rayleigh
density of the form
f(
μ
)= 2
μ
e

μ
2
. Theconditional pairwise error probability
isgiven by
h
D
(
R
c
E
b
N
o
, h
│
μ
) =
Q
(2
R
c
h E
b
/ N
o
Σ
μ
2i
)
i=1
(6)
where
Q
function can be defined as
Q(x)
≤ (1/2)
e
–
x
2
/
2
(7)
By averaging the conditional bit errorrate over fading using (5), (6), and (7). Theupper bound for
BER
is represented by
n k
BER
≤ 0.5
Σ
Σ
(
w/k
)
A
cw,h
.
h=h
m
w=1
[
1/(1+R
c
E
b
/ N
o
)
]
h
(8)It is clear from equation (8) that BERdepends on major factors like signaltonoise ratio per bit, and the input–outputweight coefficients (IOWC),
A
cw,h
for thecode,
A
cw,h
is represented related to the typeof concatenation.The average IOWC for
λ
concatenatedcodes with
λ
1
interleavers can be obtainedby averaging (5) over all over all possibleinterleavers. This average is obtained byreplacing the actual
i
th
interleaver (
i = 1, 2,… ,
λ
1
), that performs a permutation of the
N
i
input bits, with an abstract interleavercalled uniform interleaver defined as aprobabilistic device that maps a given inputword of weight
w
into all distinct
N
i
w
permutations of it with equal probability
ψ
= 1 /
N
i
.
w
IV. DESIGN OF CONCATENATEDCODES
Concatenated codes represent a morerecent development in the coding researchfield [1], which has risen a large interest inthe coding community.
IV. 1. Design of Parallel ConcatenatedConvolutional Codes ( PCCC )
The first type of concatenated codes is
parallel concatenated convolutional codes
(PCCC) whose encoder is formed by two (ormore)
constituent
systematic encoders joinedthrough one or more interleavers. The inputinformation bits feed the first encoder and,after having been scrambled by theinterleaver, they enter the second encoder.A codeword of a parallel concatenated codeconsists of the input bits to the first encoderfollowed by the parity
check bits of bothencoders. As shown in Fig. 1, the structureof PCCC consists of convolutional code
C
1
with rate
R
1 p
=
p/q
1
, and convolutional code
C
2
with rate
R
2 p
=
p/q
2
, where theconstituent code inputs are joined by aninterleaver of length
N
, generating a PCCC,
C
p
, with total rate
R
p
. The output codewordlength
n = n
1
+ n
2
[4].
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 201178http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 19475500