Mobile Support Stations (MSS), and Data Base Servers (DBS).MSS is connected with a Base Station Controller (BSC) ,which coordinates the operations of MSS using its own storedprogram. Unrestricted mobility is supported by wireless link between MSS and Mobile Hosts. Each MSS serves one cellwhose size depends on the power of its MSS. Data BaseServers are connected to the mobile system through wiredlines as separate nodes. Each DBS can be reached by anyMSS and new DBSs can be connected and old ones can betaken out from the network without affecting mobilecommunication. A DBS can communicate with a MH only viaMSSs.Mobile agent is a special mobile node which connects tothe MSS to cache the frequently accessed data. DisconnectedMobile Hosts can connect to the Mobile Agent using shortrange wireless communication technologies to form mobileaffiliation workgroup.Mobile hosts are allowed to access data from the cache.When data request is made for the first time, data is retrievedfrom the server and stored in the cache. Subsequent requestsare handled by the Data Access Manager module itself. Whena mobile host requests for data update, after local updation of the data item, invalidation report is sent to all the mobile hoststhat have already accessed the same data. This makes all the
mobile hosts to refresh their data values. When a mobile hostis disconnected from the Mobile agent after updation request,the updation task is transferred to the Data Access Manager inthe Mobile Agent. Data Access Manager module is used tocoordinate the operations in the cache.After disconnected from the server, Mobile Agent canmove along with the connected MHs and MHs can continuetheir transaction execution. If data update at the server isrequested, mobile agent will wait for reconnection beforeupdation is made.IV.
When Mobile Hosts enter into the Mobile Agent area, theyconnect to the Mobile Agent using short range wirelessnetwork technology to form Mobile Affiliation Work Group.Frequently accessed data are cached in the Mobile Agent.Mobile Hosts can access the cached data in the Mobile Agent.The Data Access Manager module at the Mobile Agent isresponsible for enforcing concurrency and cache invalidation.A.
Energy and Connectivity Evaluation
Mobile Hosts all the time maintains its energy availabilityand connectivity. Connectivity is evaluated based on signalstrength. When signal strength goes below one fourth of totalstrength, connectivity is considered as Low. When available
energy goes below 25% of total energy level, then
availability is considered as Low. The status of an MH basedon Energy Availability and Connectivity (A
) can be
Low Energy & Low Connectivity, A
– Low Energy & HighConnectivity, A
–High Energy & Low Connectivity and A
High Energy & High Connectivity. When Data AccessManager receives a transaction request from a mobile host, itassigns a priority level using A
. A mobile host with lowenergy and low connectivity is assigned the highest priority.Other levels of priority are assigned according to the variouspossibilities as given in Table I.
Status of an MH(A
Low Low 1A
Low High 2A
High Low 3A
High High 4B.
Concurrency Control Mechanism
When more number of mobile hosts are accessing datasimultaneously the problem of data inconsistency arises. Thisproblem can be solved if we use an efficient concurrencycontrol mechanism. When data request is made for the firsttime, data is retrieved from the server and stored in the cache.Future requests for data are managed directly by the DataAccess Manager.Data Access Manager uses a suitable data item format tostore data as quintuple  in the cache. It has (id, TLU, PLP,dataval, NT) where id denotes unique Id of the data item, TLUindicates time of Last Update, PLP is Predicted Life Period,dataval is current value of the data item and NT denotesnumber of transactions that concurrently access the data item.When Data Access Manager fetches data for the first timefrom the server, it sets TLU to current time, PLP to optimaltime based on the nature of data item and NT to 1. NT isincremented whenever a new data access request is made.Data in the cache becomes invalid, once it is updated in theserver. Life span of a data item is predicted using PLP. Itmakes use of the probability of updation as a basis for settingvalid life span of a data item. In PLP interval, data item isvalid and all the mobile hosts can access same data itemconcurrently.When a MH makes update request or PLP expires, thedata item is invalidated. Now PLP is modified andinvalidation report is sent. The predicted life period of dataitem is computed using the following formula given in .PLP=PPLP ± (p*PPLP)Where PPLP is Previous Predicted Life Period and p ispredicted probability of updation of data item. p =Total_updates / NT. It is the ratio of data item update to dataitem access. Since predicted probability of updation is basedon recent past history of updation rate, it is highly probablethat PLP is very close to the actual validity interval of the dataitem.
C. Transaction Execution in the MH
After connecting to the Mobile Agent ,
the MH intimates thestatus of Energy availability and Connectivity (A
) of the MHto DAM at Mobile Agent. Then, the execution of the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 201188http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500