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Enhanced Load Balanced AODV Routing Protocol

Enhanced Load Balanced AODV Routing Protocol

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Published by ijcsis
Excessive load on the MANET is the main reason for link breakage and performance degradation. A congested node in the network dies more quickly than other nodes. A good load balancing technique share the traffic load evenly among all the nodes those can take part in transmission. Transferring of load from congested nodes to less busy nodes and involvement of other nodes in transmission that can take part in route can improve the overall network life. We proposed a load balancing scheme for AODV that improves overall network life, throughput and reduce average end to end delay.
Excessive load on the MANET is the main reason for link breakage and performance degradation. A congested node in the network dies more quickly than other nodes. A good load balancing technique share the traffic load evenly among all the nodes those can take part in transmission. Transferring of load from congested nodes to less busy nodes and involvement of other nodes in transmission that can take part in route can improve the overall network life. We proposed a load balancing scheme for AODV that improves overall network life, throughput and reduce average end to end delay.

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Published by: ijcsis on Feb 15, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
 Enhanced Load Balanced AODV Routing Protocol 
Iftikhar Ahmad and Humaira JabeenDepartment of Computer ScienceFaculty of Basic and Applied SciencesInternational Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistanify_ia@yahoo.com, humaira_jabeen_83@yahoo.com 
 Abstract
 
Excessive load on the MANET is the main reasonfor link breakage and performance degradation. A congestednode in the network dies more quickly than other nodes. Agood load balancing technique share the traffic load evenlyamong all the nodes those can take part in transmission.Transferring of load from congested nodes to less busy nodesand involvement of other nodes in transmission that can takepart in route can improve the overall network life. Weproposed a load balancing scheme for AODV that improvesoverall network life, throughput and reduce average end to enddelay.
 Keywords: AODV, load balancing,congestion,delay.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
A mobile ad hoc network is defined as a collection of mobile nodes with no central management, running onbatteries and changing topology [12]. The routing inMANET is difficult due to its changing topology. There arethree types of protocols for MANET proactive, reactive andhybrid routing protocols. Proactive routing protocols storesand maintains routing state of every other node in thenetwork. Reactive routing protocols discover route ondemand, when there is need. Hybrid routing protocolscombines advantages of both reactive and proactive classesof protocols. In this study we proposed a load balanced adhoc routing protocol by modifying basic AODV routingprotocol. AODV [13] is the main reactive routing protocolfor mobile ad hoc networks which is most widely used forrouting in MANET. It is especially designed for MANETand performs well then other routing protocols for MANET.The basic function of AODV is depended on twomechanisms; one is route discovery mechanism and secondis route mentainence mechanism. Both of these mechanismsworks through four different type of messages those areRREQ, RREP, Route error message and Hello message.Whenever a node wants to transmit data to any other node inthe network, it starts route discovery process by sending abroad cost of RREQ to all its neighbors those are withintransmission rang. A route reply is sent back to the sourcenode by the destination or any intermediate node that havefresher route to destination. The reply is sent through theroute which is having less number of hops.In this way a route with less number of hops is selectedduring the route discovery mechanism. In the route discoverymechanism the route is discovered and selected throughroute discovery algorithm. Lot of work has been done on thisalgorithm and improvements are made in order to increaseperformance of protocol. Certain Load balancing schemesare proposed to achieve good load balancing in MANET. InLoad balancing we transfer the jobs from overloaded nodesto less busy nodes or idle nodes. In the result, total time toprocess all jobs can be reduced and also guarantee that nonode will remain idle while some jobs are there to process.Numbers of algorithms are proposed for load balancingthat consider traffic load for route selection, but thesealgorithms are not suitable for large scale transmissions.While selecting the route we must consider that thedistribution of load should be even. Mobile nodes havinglow traffic load should be preferred to the heavily loadedmobile nodes.II.
 
RELATED WORK
 Dynamic Load-Aware Routing [2] protocol, DLARdefined the network load of a mobile node as the number of packets in its interface queue. Load-Balanced Ad hocRouting protocol [1] LBAR defined network load in a nodeas the total number of routes passing through the node and itsneighbors.In Load-Sensitive Routing protocol [3] the network loadin a node is defined as the summation of the number of packets being queued in the interface of the mobile host andits neighboring hosts. Even though the load metric of LSR ismore accurate than those of DLAR or LBAR, but it does notconsider the effect of access contentions in the MAC layer.Therefore, LSR produce contention delay. WLAR [4]distributes traffic among mobile nodes through loadbalancing mechanism which is product of average queue sizeand number of shared nodes. Load Aware Routing in Ad hoc(LARA) networks protocol [5] defines a new metric calledtraffic density that is used to select the route with minimumload. Traffic density means the degree of contention at themedium access control layer.Simple Load-balancing Approach (SLA)[6] not allowingtraffic to be concentrated on the node and allowing eachnode to drop RREQ or to give up packet forwardingdepending on its own traffic load to save energy. It alsosuggests a payment scheme called Protocol-IndependentFairness Algorithm (PIFA) for packet forwarding.A novel load-balancing technique [7] for ad hoc on-demand routing is very effective method to achieve loadbalance and congestion alleviation. If a node ignores RREQmessages within a specific period, it can completely beexcluded from the additional communications that mighthave occurred for that period otherwise. A node can decidenot to serve a traffic flow by dropping the RREQ for thatflow. The interface queue occupancy and workload on nodeis used to control RREQ messages adaptively.
98http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
Delay-based load-aware on-demand routing (D-LAOR)protocol [8], discovers the optimal path based on theestimated total path delay and the hop count.AOMDV routing protocol [9] used Queue Length andHop Count value together to select a route from source todestination that avoids congestion and load balancing. Athreshold value is defined after a threshold alternate path ischosen. Intermediate nodes avoids broad cast of RREQ if theroutes are already congested.Aggregate Interface Queue Length (AIQL) scheme hasbeen proposed in this paper [10] to deal with load balancingissues. A route is selected on the bases of AIQL to transmitthe data. AIQL is the sum of queue length of all nodes in thepath form source to destination.All proposed protocols work well for small scaletransmissions but in case of large scale transmission the ad-hoc on demand distance vector load and mobility(AODVLM) routing protocol [11] shows better results interms of throughput and delivery ratio with little increase inrouting overhead. The proposed load balancing scheme inthis paper further extends the AODVLM implementation.III.
 
PROPOSD LOAD BALANCING SCHEME
 The proposed modification extends AODV anddistributes the traffic among ad hoc nodes through a simpleload balancing mechanism. The protocol adopts basicAODV procedure.
 A.
 
Selecting Route Selection Procedure
When a source node initiates a route discovery procedureby flooding RREQ messages, each node that receives theRREQ looks in its routing table to see if it has a fresh routeto the destination.If it doesn't have the route it calculates the number of packets in its interface queue and divides it with its queuelength and adds calculated ratio in RREQ and broadcasts itfurther. The process is repeated till either the destination isreached or no destination is found.
 B.
 
 Averaged Aggregated Load Ratio (AALR)
If P are packets in the queue of a node and L is the lengthof queue then ratio of the load on node is R =P/L and sum of ratio on each node in the route is =
R then
AALR =
R/N
, where N is
 
number of hops theRREQ has passed through.The AALR metric has been used in order to find out theheavily loaded route. Because if the aggregate queue lengthfor the path is higher, then it obviously means that either allthe nodes on the path are loaded or there is at least one nodelying on the route that is overloaded.Hence by considering a route with lesser value of averaged aggregate load ratio for selecting the path we arehave diverge the packets from heavily loaded route tocomparatively lighter route.In this way traffic load is distributed among the availablereachable nodes that can provide a path to destination.Instead of increasing load on already busy nodes we aredistributing traffic load among the other available nodes.
C.
 
Use of less Busier Nodes
During the transmission the selected route expires fromtime to time to check the availability of less busier node forfurther transmission of data. There is greater chance thatmore nodes come closer to the active route that can providebetter route for transmission. For this purpose we expiresroute after fixed intervals of time during the transmission of data. Instead of using the same route for entire transmissionof data new route are discovered.The following figure 1 displaying the scenario of transmission with basic AODV routing protocol.
Figure 1. Example AODV Transmsion Scenerio.
In figure 1 node 5 is communicating with node 7and node 0 is the source node for node 4. We can easilyanalyze that node 3 is busiest node that will be dead verysoon. For large scale transmission there will be more badresults as for as through put is concerned. As from the figureit is clear that node 5 can communicate through node sinstead of node 3. With the passage of time as in part 2 of the figure the node 0 can transmit data through node 2which is more efficient path but it does not happening incase of basic AODV. After new proposed load balancingscheme the figure 1 will be like the figure 2.
Figure 2. AODV Transmsion Scenerio after Implementation.
99http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
The new scheme is adopting the better and less busyroute. It avoids the congested nodes during route discoveryand later on during transmissions makes use of all availableless busy nodes. In this way our scheme is shifting thetraffic load form busier nodes to less busy nodes. Newproposed scheme not using the certain nodes for entiretraffic but sharing traffic load with all available nodes thatcan take part in communication as in shown in figure 2.As long as a particular node remains busy means it has totransmit or forward more packets to its neighboring nodes.With transmission of each data and control packet node isconsuming energy (power). Mobile node relies on batteriesand battery life decrease with the forwarding of each andevery packet.So, more load means lesser life time of the node andlesser network life intern. To calculate the node’s load sharewe calculate number of packets forward by that particularnode and compare that number against each other and thenetwork. Our proposed protocol give more even loadbalancing in MANET then existing load balancing protocols.IV.
 
P
ERFORMANCE EVALUATION
We implemented basic and our load balancing algorithmin NS2 [15]. NS2 is discrete event simulator for thesimulation of wireless ad hoc networks. It supports Two RayGround propagation and Random Way Point mobilitymodels those are required for the implementation of ourwork. We used the following performance metric to evaluatethe performance of our load balancing algorithm againstbasic AODV algorithm.
 A.
 
Performance Metric1)
 
 Average end to end delay:
This is the average overall delay occurs for a packet totravel from a source node to a destination node. Thisincludes all possible delays caused by buffering during routediscovery, queuing at the interface-queue, contention andretransmission delays at the MAC layer, and propagation andtransfer times.
2)
 
Throughput:
It is defined as the total number of packets transmitted ina given time period.
3)
 
Traffic load Distribution:
It is the total number of packets that are forwarded by anode during transmission. Because each forwarded packetconsume node’s power that reduce node life.
 B.
 
Parameter Setting
The radio propagation model [14] that is considered forthe protocol is the Two-Ray Ground and Random way pointmobility model is used in our implementation of protocol.The table I shows complete detail of parameter used inour simulation setting.
TABLE I.
SIMULATION SETTING
 
Channel type Channel/Wireless ChannelRadio-propagation model Propagation/TwoRay GroundNetwork interface Phy/WirelessPhyMAC type Mac/802_11Interface queue Queue/Drop Tail/PriQueueLink layer type LLAntenna model Antenna/Omni AntennaMax packet in ifq 25Packet size 1024Number of mobile nodes 20Simulation time 150 seconds
C.
 
Simulation Results
The results are compared and presented in graphical formafter implementing Enhanced load balancing AODV routingprotocol. We analyzed the results by taking pause time on x-axis and performance metric throughput and end to enddelay on Y-axis and for load distribution number of forwarded packets on y-axis and Node ID on x-axis.
1)
 
Throughput:
Throughput at different time interval is compared asshown in figure 5.
Figure 3. Throughput vs Pause time.
Total number of packets transmitted by AODV is lesser thenLoad balanced AODV and with passage of time throughputof load balanced AODV is increasing as more packets aretransmitting in given time.
2)
 
 Average end to end delay:
Average end to end delay of load balanced is round about18 mille seconds at the start of transmission and astransmission goes on it becomes 10 mille second but forAODV its minimum value is 14 mille seconds. It meansaveraged end to end delay is reduced in greater extend. Thisreduction in delay improves throughput that means nowsource node is sending packets more quickly to thedestination then basic AODV.
100http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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