(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, 2011
(nΔt); k= 0, 1, 2…, N
Δt is the sampling interval.
Figure 1. Row Mean Generation Technique
Discrete Cosine Transform
A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a sequence of finitely many data points in terms of a sum of cosine functionsoscillating at different frequencies.
Where y(k) is the cosine transform, k=1,…, N.
The DCT is closely related to the discrete Fourier transform.You can often reconstruct a sequence very accurately fromonly a few DCT coefficients, a useful property for applicationsrequiring data reduction [20
Discrete Sine Transform
A discrete sine transform (DST) expresses a sequence of finitely many data points in terms of a sum of sine functions.
(3)Where y(k) is the sine transform,
The Walsh transform or Walsh
Hadamard transform is a non-sinusoidal, orthogonal transformation technique thatdecomposes a signal into a set of basis functions. These basisfunctions are Walsh functions, which are rectangular or squarewaves with values of +1 or
1. The Walsh
Hadamardtransform returns sequency values. Sequency is a moregeneralized notion of frequency and is defined as one half of the average number of zero-crossings per unit time interval.Each Walsh function has a unique sequency value. You canuse the returned sequency values to estimate the signalfrequencies in the original signal. The Walsh
Hadamardtransform is used in a number of applications, such as imageprocessing, speech processing, filtering, and power spectrumanalysis. It is very useful for reducing bandwidth storagerequirements and spread-spectrum analysis. Like the FFT, theWalsh
Hadamard transform has a fast version, the fastWalsh
Hadamard transform (
). Compared to the FFT,the FWHT requires less storage space and is faster to calculatebecause it uses only real additions and subtractions, while theFFT requires complex values. The FWHT is able to representsignals with sharp discontinuities more accurately using fewercoefficients than the FFT. FWHT
intotwo smaller WHTs of size
/ 2. This implementation followsthe recursive definition of the Hadamardmatrix
:(4)The normalization factors for each stage may be groupedtogether or even omitted. The Sequency ordered, also knownas Walsh ordered, fast Walsh
Hadamard transform, FWHT
,is obtained by computing the FWHT
as above, and thenrearranging the outputs .III.
The procedure for feature vector extraction is given below:1.
The speech signal is divided into groups of n samples.(Where n can take values: 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,2048, and 4096) samples.2.
These blocks are then arranged as columns of a matrixand then the different transforms given in section II aretaken.C
Row Mean(1 × 5)Speech signal (1 × 15)
1 6 112 7 123 8 134 9 145 10 15
Speech signalconverted intomatrix (5 × 3)
Transform matrix(5 × 3)
Dividinginto blocksof 5Transform
Mean ofeach row
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15T