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Performance Evaluation of Space-Time Turbo Code Concatenated With Block Code MC-CDMA Systems

Performance Evaluation of Space-Time Turbo Code Concatenated With Block Code MC-CDMA Systems

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper, performance of a space-time turbo code (STTuC) in concatenation with space-time block code (STBC) in multi-carrier code-division multiple-access (MCCDMA) system with multi-path fading channel is considered. The performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) is evaluated through simulations. The corresponding BER of the concatenated STTuC-STBC-MC-CDMA system is compared with STTuC-MC-CDMA system and STBC-MC-CDMA system. The simulation results show that the STTuC-MCCDMA system performance is better the STBC-MC-CDMA system and it can be further improved by employing concatenation technique i.e. STTuC-STBC-MC-CDMA system.
In this paper, performance of a space-time turbo code (STTuC) in concatenation with space-time block code (STBC) in multi-carrier code-division multiple-access (MCCDMA) system with multi-path fading channel is considered. The performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) is evaluated through simulations. The corresponding BER of the concatenated STTuC-STBC-MC-CDMA system is compared with STTuC-MC-CDMA system and STBC-MC-CDMA system. The simulation results show that the STTuC-MCCDMA system performance is better the STBC-MC-CDMA system and it can be further improved by employing concatenation technique i.e. STTuC-STBC-MC-CDMA system.

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Published by: ijcsis on Feb 15, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
Performance Evaluation of Space-Time Turbo CodeConcatenated With Block Code MC-CDMA Systems
Lokesh Kumar Bansal
 Department of Electronics & Comm. Engg., N.I.E.M., Mathura, India
 
e-mail:
lokesh_bansal@rediffmail.com
Aditya Trivedi
 Department of Information and Comm. Technology ABV-IIITM, Gwalior, Indiae-mail: atrivedi@iiitm.ac.in
 Abstract
In this paper, performance of a space-time turbocode (STTuC) in concatenation with space-time block code(STBC) in multi-carrier code-division multiple-access (MC-CDMA) system with multi-path fading channel is considered.The performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) is evaluatedthrough simulations. The corresponding BER of theconcatenated STTuC-STBC-MC-CDMA system is comparedwith STTuC-MC-CDMA system and STBC-MC-CDMAsystem. The simulation results show that the STTuC-MC-CDMA system performance is better the STBC-MC-CDMAsystem and it can be further improved by employingconcatenation technique i.e. STTuC-STBC-MC-CDMAsystem.
 Keywords-MMSE; Multi-path channel; MAP Decoder; MIMO; Space-time code; Space-time turbo-code; Space-time trellis-code; Viterbi Decoder
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 The wireless communication market is increasedexponentially in recent years. A lot of interest has beendeveloped in modulation techniques like OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Code DivisionMultiple Access (CDMA) and Multicarrier Code DivisionMultiple Access (MC-CDMA). MC-CDMA is seen as apossible candidate for Fourth Generation (4G) wirelesscommunication systems that demand higher data rate forvoice and data transmissions. CDMA technique is widelyused in current Third Generation (3G) wirelesscommunication systems. The principle of spread spectrumtechnology behind CDMA was popularly used in militarycommunications for improving secrecy and low probabilityof interception during transmission. Now, CDMAtechnology is also increased in civilian markets due to highcapacity and better performance. The rapid growth of video,voice and data transmission through the internet and theincreased use of mobile telephony in today’s life have thenecessity for higher data rate transmissions over the wirelesschannels [1]-[4].In 3G systems we have higher data rate i.e. 64kbps –2Mbps as compared to 9.6kbps – 14.4kbps used in 2Gsystems. The 4G systems that include broadband wirelessservices require data rate up to 20Mbps. This alsoemphasizes the need for improved spectral efficiency andhigher Quality of Service (QOS) over current systems [5]-[7]. The above requirements can be fulfilled by multicarriermodulation techniques. Single carrier systems give good datarate but are limited in performance in multi path fadingchannels. Improved performance in multipath fading channelconditions, high data rates and efficient bandwidth usage arethe main advantages of multicarrier modulation. Space-timecoding (STC) techniques incorporate the methods of transmitter diversity, channel coding, and provide significantcapacity gains over the traditional communication systems inthe fading wireless channels. Here, STC has been developedalong two major directions:
space-time block coding
(STBC) and
space-time turbo coding (STTuC)
.In this paper, the STBC, STTuC, and STTuC-STBC codetechniques are studied and applied in MC-CDMA systems.These techniques are employed with multiple input multipleoutput (MIMO) antenna diversity in multi-path fadingchannel. At the receiver side minimum mean-square errordetection (MMSE) technique is used by employingmaximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm for turbo codedecoding purpose on full load. The performance in terms of bit error rate probability (BER) is obtained in presence of perfect channel state information (CSI).The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in SectionII, MC-CDMA system is presented. In Section III, space-time coding technique is described. The space-time block code scheme is given in section IV. In Section V, themathematical representation for the space-time turbo code isexplained. Space-Time turbo code in concatenation withspace-time block code MC-CDMA system model is given insection VI. Simulation for error rate performance of MC-CDMA systems in presence of perfect CSI are carried out inSection VII. The conclusions are presented in Section VIII.II.
 
MC-CDMA
 
S
YSTEMS
 CDMA communication system allows multiple users totransmit at the same time in the same frequency band.Traditional multiple access techniques like time divisionmultiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multipleaccess (FDMA) are based on the philosophy of letting nomore than one transmitter occupy a given time-frequency
108http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
slot. In a CDMA based system, users are assigned differentsignature wave forms or codes. Each transmitter sends itsdata stream by modulating its own signature waveform as ina single-user digital communication system. The receiverdoes not need to concern itself with the fact that the signaturewaveforms overlap both in frequency and time, because theirorthogonality ensures that they will be transparent to theoutput of the other user's correlator [8], [9]. CDMA still hasa few drawbacks, the main one being that capacity is limitedby the multiple access interference (MAI). The W-CDMAsupports high data rate transmission, typically 384 kbps forwide area coverage and 2 mbps for local coverage formultimedia services. Thus, W-CDMA is capable of offeringthe transmission of voice, text, data, picture (still image) andvideo over a single platform. However, in addition to thedrawbacks arising from the mobile environment and multipleaccess interference, high bit rate transmission causes inter-symbol interference (ISI) to occur. The ISI, therefore, has tobe taken into account during transmission.Multi-carrier modulation is being proposed for 4Gwireless communication systems for high data rateapplication to reduce the effect of ISI and adapt to channelconditions. A number of MC-CDMA systems have beenproposed lately. These systems solve the ISI problem bytransmitting the same data symbol over a large number of narrow band orthogonal carriers. The number of carriersequals or exceeds the pseudo-noise (PN) code length [10]-[12]. In MC-CDMA system, each data symbol is transmittedover
 N 
narrowband sub-carriers, where each sub-carrier isencoded with a 0 or
π
phase offset. An MC-CDMA signal iscomposed of 
 N 
narrowband sub-carrier signals each withsymbol duration,
b
, much larger than the delay spread,
,hence MC-CDMA signal does not experience significant ISI.Multiple access is achieved with different users transmittingat the same set of sub-carriers but with spreading codes thatare different to the codes of other users. Initially, the datastream is serial to parallel converted to a number of lowerrate streams. Each stream feeds a number of parallel streamswith the same rate. On each of the parallel streams, bits areinterleaved and spread by a PN code with a suitable chiprate. Then, these streams modulate different or orthogonalcarriers with a successively overlapping bandwidth.In a MC-CDMA system, the numbers of carriers aretypically chosen to be large enough so that the signal oneach sub-carrier is propagated through a channel, whichbehaves in a nonselective manner. The fading processes oneach sub-carrier for each user must be estimated, which canbe used in forming the MMSE filter. This approach isshown to perform close to ideal for sufficiently high vehiclespeeds, up to which the normalized Doppler rate is about1percent [13].Providing
 
high data rate transmission of the order of several megabits per second (mbps) is important for futurewireless communications. In recent years, antenna systemswhich employ multiple antennas at both the base station(BS) and mobile station (MS), have been proposed anddemonstrated to significantly increase system performanceas well as capacity. The merit of using multiple antennas orspace diversity is that no bandwidth expansion or increase intransmitted power is required for capacity and performanceimprovements [14].III.
 
S-T
 
C
ODING
T
ECHNIQUE
 In most wireless communication systems, the number of diversity methods are used to get the required performance.According to the domain, the diversity techniques areclassified into time, frequency, and space diversity [15]. S-Tcoding technique is designed for use with multiple transmitantennas. There are various techniques in coding structures,which include Alamouti STC, STBC, STTC, STTuC, andlayered space-time (LST) codes. S-T coding with multipletransmit and receive antennas minimizes the effect of multi-path fading and improves the performance and capacity of digital transmission over wireless radio channels [16].STBC can achieve a maximum possible diversityadvantage with a simple decoding algorithm. It is veryattractive because of its simplicity. However, no coding gaincan be provided by STBC. STTuC is able to combat theeffects of fading. However, STTuC have a potentialdrawback due to the fact that its decoder complexity (MAPdecoder) grows with the number of iterations.A base band S-T coded system with
n
transmitantennas and
 R
n
receive antennas is shown in Figure 1. Thetransmitted data are encoded by a S-T encoder. At each timeinstant, a block of 
m
binary information symbols, denoted by
( )
( )
()
123m
n=a(n),a(n),a(n),.....,an
 a
is fed into theS-T encoder. The S-T encoder maps the block of 
m
binaryinput data into
n
modulation symbols from a signal set of 
 M =2
m
points. The coded data are applied to a serial toparallel (S/P) converter producing a sequence of 
n
parallelsymbols, arranged into a
1
×
n
column vector
( )
n
n xn xn xn
)(.,),........(),()(
21
=
X
 where
denotes the transpose of a matrix. The
n
paralleloutputs are simultaneously transmitted by
n
differentantennas, where by symbol
),(
n x
i
 
,1
ni
 
istransmitted by antenna
i
and all transmitted symbols havethe same duration of 
sec
. The vector of coded modulationsymbols from different antennas is called a S-T symbol. Thespectral efficiency of the system is
m B
b
==
η 
 
 Hzbits
sec/  / 
,where
b
is the data rate and
 B
is thechannel bandwidth. This spectral efficiency is equal to thespectral efficiency of a reference uncoded system with onetransmit antenna.
109http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
Figure 1- A base band system model
The multiple antennas at both the transmitter and the receivercreate a MIMO channel. For wireless mobilecommunications, each link from a transmit antenna to areceive antenna can be modeled by flat fading, if we assumethat the channel is memoryless. The MIMO channelwith
n
transmit and
 R
n
 
receive antennas can be representedby an
( )
 R
nn
×
channel matrix
H
and it can be given as
=
)(......)()( ::::::::)(......)()( )(.....)()( )(
,2,1, .22,21,2 ,12,11,1
nhnhnh nhnhnh nhnhnh n
 R R R
nnnn nn
H
 where the
( )
th
 ji
element, denoted by
)(
,
nh
i j
, is the fadingattenuation coefficient for the path from transmit antenna
i
to receive antenna
 j
.It is further assumed that the fading coefficients
)(
,
nh
i j
 are independent complex Gaussian random variables. At thereceiver, the signal at each of the
 R
n
receive antennas is anoisy superposition of the
n
transmitted signals degradedby channel fading. The
th
n
received signal atantenna
 j
),....,2,1(
 R
n j
=
denoted by
)(
n
 j
, is given by
)()()()(
1,
nvn xnhn
 jinii j j
+=
=
(1)where
)(
nv
 j
 
is the noise component of receive antenna
 j
 at time
n
, which is an independent noise sample of the zero-mean complex Gaussian random variable with the one sidedpower spectral density of 
o
 N 
.
)(
n
is the received signalsequence from
 R
n
receive antennas of 
1
×
 R
n
columnvector
( )
n
nnnn
 R
)(.,),........(),()(
21
=
r
 Thus, the received signal vector can be represented as,
)()()()(
nvn X n H n
+=
(2)It is assumed that the decoder at the receiver uses amaximum likelihood algorithm to estimate the transmittedinformation sequence with receiver has perfect channel stateinformation (CSI) on the MIMO channel. At the receiver, thedecision metric is computed based on the squared Euclideandistance between the hypothesized received sequence and theactual received sequence as
2,11
()()()
 R
nn ji ji ji
rnhnxn
= =
(3)The decoder select a codeword with the minimum decisionmetric as the decoded sequence [4], [16].IV.
 
S
PACE
-T
IME
B
LOCK
C
ODE
(STBC)STBC first introduced by Alamouti with two transmitantennas. Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the AlamoutiS-T encoder. It is assumed that a
ary M 
modulationscheme is used. In the Alamouti S-T encoder, each group of 
m
information bits is first coded, where
 M m
2
log
=
.Here, the encoder takes a block of two modulated symbols
1
 x
and
2
 x
in each encoding operation and maps them to thetransmit antennas according to a code matrix given by
=
*12*21
 x x x x
X
(4)The encoder outputs are transmitted in two consecutivetransmission periods from two transmit antennas. During thefirst transmission period, two signals
1
 x
and
2
 x
aretransmitted simultaneously from antenna one and antennatwo, respectively.
)(
na
)(
1
n x
 
na
InformationSourceSpace-TimeEncoder
)(
n
X
S/P
...
)(
2
n x
 
)(
n x
n
 
)(
n
 R
n
 
)(
2
n
 
)(
1
n
 Receiver...
110http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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