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Information Security and Ethics in Educational Context: Propose a Conceptual Framework to Examine Their Impact

Information Security and Ethics in Educational Context: Propose a Conceptual Framework to Examine Their Impact

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Published by ijcsis
Information security and ethics are viewed as major areas of interest by many academic researchers and industrial experts. They are defined as an all-encompassing term that refers to all activities needed to secure information and systems that supports it in order to facilitate its ethical use. In this research, the important parts of current studies introduced. To accomplish the goals of information security and ethics, suggested framework discussed from educational level to training phase in order to evaluate computer ethics and its social impacts. Using survey research, insight is provided regarding the extent to which and how university student have dealt with issues of computer ethics and to address the result of designed computer ethics framework on their future career and behavioral experience.
Information security and ethics are viewed as major areas of interest by many academic researchers and industrial experts. They are defined as an all-encompassing term that refers to all activities needed to secure information and systems that supports it in order to facilitate its ethical use. In this research, the important parts of current studies introduced. To accomplish the goals of information security and ethics, suggested framework discussed from educational level to training phase in order to evaluate computer ethics and its social impacts. Using survey research, insight is provided regarding the extent to which and how university student have dealt with issues of computer ethics and to address the result of designed computer ethics framework on their future career and behavioral experience.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.1, 201
1
 
Information Security and Ethics in EducationalContext: Propose a Conceptual Framework toExamine Their Impact
Hamed Taherdoost
Islamic Azad University, SemnanBranchDepartment of Computer Tehran, Iranhamed.taherdoost@gmail.com 
Meysam Namayandeh
Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr BranchDepartment of Computer Tehran, Iranmeysam.namayandeh@gmail.com 
 Neda Jalaliyoon
Islamic Azad University, SemnanBranchDepartment of ManagmentSemnan, Iranneda.jalaliyoon@yahoo.com
 Abstract 
 — 
Information security and ethics are viewed as majorareas of interest by many academic researchers and industrialexperts. They are defined as an all-encompassing term that refersto all activities needed to secure information and systems thatsupports it in order to facilitate its ethical use. In this research,the important parts of current studies introduced. To accomplishthe goals of information security and ethics, suggested framework discussed from educational level to training phase in order toevaluate computer ethics and its social impacts. Using surveyresearch, insight is provided regarding the extent to which andhow university student have dealt with issues of computer ethicsand to address the result of designed computer ethics framework on their future career and behavioral experience
.
 
 Keywords-component; information security; ethics; framework 
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
The current development in information andcommunication technologies impacted all sectors in our dailylife. To ensure effective working of information securityfactors, various controls and measures had been implemented by current policies and guidelines between computer developers [7]. However, lack of proper computer ethicsstudies in this field motivated researcher s to define a newframework.Hence, this research will examine awareness andinformation of students in computer ethics from educationalaspect. Also from Malaysian perspective, review of relatedresearch [11] indicates the existence of conflicting viewsconcerning the ethical perceptions of students. In today’sglobal economy, computer security and computer ethicsawareness is an important component of any managementinformation system [13].It be would an undeniable element of security in Malaysiancomputer technology as Malaysia is ranked 8 out of 10 topinfected countries in the Asia Pacific region as a target for cyber attackers [14]. Indeed, points out that there is a need tounderstand the basic cultural, social, legal and ethical issuesinherent in the discipline of computing. For such reasons, itwould be important that future computer professionals aretaught the meaning of responsible conduct [9].As the computer ethics was one of the major topics whichhave been throughout the past decades, in this part of introduction we reviewed a short milestone on computer ethicsand related history of developments. During the late 1970s,Joseph Weizenbaum, a computer scientist at MassachusettsInstitute of Technology in Boston, created a computer programthat he called ELIZA. In his first experiment with ELIZA, hescripted it to provide a crude imitation of a psychotherapistengaged in an initial interview with a patient. In the mid 1970s,Walter Maner began to use the term "computer ethics" to refer to that field of inquiry dealing with ethical problemsaggravated, transformed or created by computer technology.Maner offered an experimental course on the subject atUniversity. During the late 1970s, Maner generated muchinterest in university-level computer ethics courses. He offereda variety of workshops and lectures at computer scienceconferences and philosophy conferences across America.By the 1980s, a number of social and ethical consequencesof information technology were becoming public issues in theworld, issues like computer-enabled crime, disasters caused bycomputer failures, invasions of privacy via computer databases,and major law suits regarding software ownership. Because of the work of Parker and others, the foundation had been laid for computer ethics as an academic discipline. In the mid-80s,James Moor of Dartmouth College published his influential
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.1, 201
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article "What is Computer Ethics? In Computers and Ethics, aspecial issue of the journal on that particular time.During the 1990s, new university courses, research centers,conferences, journals, articles and textbooks appeared, and awide diversity of additional scholars and topics becameinvolved. The mid-1990s has heralded the beginning of asecond generation of Computer Ethics which contain the newconcept of security. The time has come to build upon andelaborate the conceptual foundation whilst, in parallel,developing the frameworks within which practical action canoccur, thus reducing the probability of unforeseen effects of information technology application.In 2000s, the computer revolution can be usefully dividedinto three stages, two of which have already occurred, theintroduction stage and the permeation stage.The world entered the third and most important stage “the power stage” in which many of the most serious social, political, legal, and ethical questions involving informationtechnology will present them on a large scale. The importantmission in this era is to believe that future developments ininformation technology will make computer ethics morevibrant and more important than ever. Computer ethics is madeto research about security and it`s beneficial aspects.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: section2 describes the details of DAMA frame work by further phaseson section 3. In section 4 the related theories are discussedfrom ethical views.II.
 
FRAMEWORK 
 This research is going to propose a framework for development of information security with computer ethicsrespect to educational conception. The further discussionfollows the exact code of ethics which are including Privacy,Property, Accuracy and Accessibility. As Figure 1 depicts,DAMA (Delimma, Attitude, Morality, and Awareness)framework examines information security and computer ethicsfrom two major dimensions: the educational and securitytraining. In addition, DAMA framework are also explored tosuggested the educational core of computer ethics which is theeffective ways to teach information security along withcomputer ethics from the basis of educational level rather thanhigher level.The educational dimension is focusing on the core of information security which considers along with awareness,morality, attitude and dilemma. In fact, educational dimensionis explored from various perspectives to have relevance for group rather than individuals where the main focus of this issuehas been mentioned in training level. Examples of questions inorder to guide the development of DAMA framework references include: have you ever heard about computer ethics?What are ethical dilemmas and its social impacts?The other main phase of educational dimension is moraldevelopment that includes personal beliefs related to their  background of computer ethics. In fact, it focus on morality andfurther effectiveness that how individual morality can changetheir attitude and therefore acquire appropriate awarenesshence evaluate ethical dilemmas.Moreover, security and training dimension is what studentsthemselves manifest core of information security along with thehelp of formal and informal discussion. The security dimensionincludes informal discussion of common mistakes that happensamong most of security consultant and officers which arerelevant to information security ethics. It includes discussionsof specific exploits of current weaknesses and may result asunethical behavior. The goal of security dimension is tocommunicate students from technical perspective to theoreticaltraining.DAMA approaches present methods and creative ideas for teaching of computer ethics with respect of informationsecurity for diverse audiences. The framework`s dimensionscover the basic levels for computer ethics lectures and classroom discussions related to ethical behavior of future computer scientists. The main emphasis is to presents creative and beneficial methods for learning experiences in various kinds of information security ethics. The authors place particular focusthat will require students to build and rebuilt their beliefs indifferent ways in order to know unethical behaviors and their social impact on their future career.
Figure 1. DAMA Framework 
III.
 
EDUCATIONAL DIMENSION
 
 A.
 
 DAMA
Computer education now begins in elementary school andis no longer a restricted technical specialty learned only bythose who are going to design or program computers. Becauseof the widespread prevalence of computers in society a core of ethical precepts relating to computer technology should becommunicated not only to computer professionals, but to thegeneral public through all levels of education. The issue should be viewed from the perspective of society and perspective of computer professionals [15].In looking at the computer ethics there is a great emphasisupon incorporating ethical and social impact issues throughout
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.1, 201
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the curriculum starting at the point when children first becomecomputer users in school. In particular, there are a set of guidelines regarding what students in general need to knowabout computer ethics. The preparation of future computer  professionals should be examined at both the high school anduniversity computer science curriculum [4]. The researchers[11] are in the process of developing new recommendations at both levels of curriculum. In the high school curriculum, therewill be both general and specific approaches to ethics andsocial impact issues.The general approach is to incorporate these concernsacross the curriculum, not just in computer courses. This is inkeeping with the philosophy that computers should beintegrated across the curriculum as a tool for all disciplines.The specific approach is to develop social impact moduleswithin the computer courses that will focus on these concerns([5], 2004). At the university level the researchers faces a yet-to-be resolved dilemma of how to implement the proposedsocietal strand in the new curriculum recommendations. Thereis much discussion, but little action, regarding the necessity of  preparing ethically and socially responsible computer scientists, especially in light of the highly publicized computer viruses that are an embarrassment to the profession.When combined with other computer science core material,the teaching of ethics is made complicated by the fact that it isnot as concrete as the rest of the curriculum. In accepting thevalue-laden nature of technology, researchers should recognizethe need to teach a methodology of explicit ethical analysis inall decision-making related technology. The moraldevelopment is at the heart of interest in the morality element.In this model [3], researchers wanted to create educationalopportunities that allow students to examine their existing beliefs regarding ethical and technical issues and in relation toexisting technical, professional, legal, and cultural solutions. Inan earlier section, it described how students examine thesesolutions with an external, objective point of view. Now, the student is positioned at the centre of theintersecting circles. The is aim to create educationalopportunities that allow and encourage students to explore“who am I now” in relation to technical, professional, cultural,and legal solutions to these ethical and security issues, and asksquestions such as “what is the relationship between who am I,who I want to be, and these issues and solutions”? The mostimportant factor in effective computer security is people`sattitudes, actions, and their sense of right and wrong [8].Problems and issues raised in the computing environment,Topics to be discussed include misuse of computers, conceptsof privacy, codes of conduct for computer professionals,disputed rights to products, defining ethical, moral, and legal parameters, and what security practitioners should do aboutethics.The issue of computer security has fallen into the gray areathat educators and industry alike have avoided for fear that toolittle knowledge could be hazardous and too much could bedangerous. Most organizations acknowledge the need for datasecurity, but, at the same time, approach security as hardware.It may be more important, and far more successful to addressthe issue of data security as an attitude rather than atechnology.
 B.
 
 PAPA
According to [12] decision makers place such a high valueon information that they will often invade someone's privacy toget it. Marketing researchers have been known to go through people's garbage to learn what products they buy, andgovernment officials have stationed monitors in restrooms togather traffic statistics to be used in justifying expansion of thefacilities.These are examples of snooping that do not use thecomputer. The general public is aware that the computer can beused for this purpose, but it is probably not aware of the easewith which personal data can be accessed. If you know how togo about the search process, you call obtain practically anytypes of personal and financial information about privatecitizens. Here four major aspect of Mason`s theory shall bestudied:
1)
 
 Privacy
Privacy may define as the claim of individuals to determinefor themselves when, to whom, and to what extent individuallyidentified data about them is communicated or used. Mostinvasions of privacy are not this dramatic or this visible.Rather, they creep up on us slowly as, for example, when agroup of diverse files relating to a student and his or her activities are integrated into a single large database. Collectionsof information reveal intimate details about a student and canthereby deprive the person of the opportunity to form certain professional and personal relationships.This is the ultimate cost of an invasion of privacy. So whyintegrate databases in the first place. It is because the bringingtogether of disparate data makes the development of newinformation relationships possible.
2)
 
 Accuracy
Accuracy represents the legitimacy, precision andauthenticity with which information is rendered. Because of the pervasiveness of information about individuals andorganizations contained in information systems, special caremust be taken to guard against errors and to correct knownmistakes. Difficult questions remain when inaccurateinformation is shared between computer systems. Anyframework should describe the legal liability issues associatedwith information. Who is held accountable for the errors? Thisis an important question may come across every researcher`smind or which party liable for inexact or incorrect informationthat leads to devastation of another.
3)
 
 Property
One of the more controversial areas of computer ethicsconcerns the intellectual property rights connected withsoftware ownership. Some people, like Richard Stallman whostarted the Free Software Foundation, believe that softwareownership should not be allowed at all. He claims that allinformation should be free, and all programs should beavailable for copying, studying and modifying by anyone whowishes to do so. Others argue that software companies or  programmers would not invest weeks and months of work and
136http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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