An important issue in the design of Mobile network is howto manage the locations of mobile nodes and giving continuousconnections to the subscribers wherever they go. The Mobilenetworks encompass the mobility management to provideubiquitous and continuous communication to the subscribers,billing for the usage and further use.An important issue in the design of Mobile network ishow to manage the locations of mobile nodes and givingcontinuous connections to the subscribers wherever they go.The Mobile networks encompass the mobility management toprovide ubiquitous and continuous communication to thesubscribers, billing for the usage and further use.II.
MANAGEMENTThe Location Management (LM) maintains the location of the Mobile Nodes to provide services. A micro cell maximum coverage area is called location of a mobile node. Agroup of locations is called a location area. The LM is dividedinto three functions, updation follows paging and call delivery.The updating function makes the Mobile Node to update itsplace to the corresponding BSC. Paging operation is performedby the BSC to track all the locations of the mobile nodes at atime and periodically.
Analysis of Location Area
A GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)network is a radio network of individual cells, called as basestations. Each base station covers a small geographical areawhich is division of a uniquely identified location area. Byintegrating the coverage of each of these base stations, acellular network provides radio coverage over a much widerarea. A group of base stations is named as location area.
Figure 2. Geographical location areaFigure 3. Geometrical location area
Figure 2, shows the geographical representation of locationarea and its divisions and the geometrical representation of location area were shown in Figure 3.
Paging is one of the fundamental mobility managementprocedures of a GSM network and also other cellular networks.MSC will request the BSC to scan all the active nodes under itscoverage . The BSC will send all the data to MSC afterscanning all the nodes.The Visitor Location Register (VLR) which normallyknows the current location of the subscriber to the level of alocation area. The VLR also knows which BSC controls cellsin that location area. The VLR sends a paging request messageto each of the relevant BSC. The BSC then send a pagingrequest to every single cell within the location area. Thispaging request is broadcast on the cell broadcast channel towhich the mobile is listening.
When a mobile node tries to communicate with othermobile node, the call reaches MSC first through BSC, after thatonly the connection will be established to concern mobile nodethrough BSC. Whenever the call comes from same or othernetwork, the connection is established based on the TemporaryMobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). TMSI is the identity mostcommonly sent between the mobile node and the network. Animportant use of the TMSI is in paging of the mobile.
The Location update procedure allows a mobile node toinform its active state to MSC through BSC. The updation isdivided into three (1) Spatial updation (2) Temporal updationand (3) Enhanced Temporal Updation. This updation will bestored into the MSC through BSC. This updation process willtake place periodically. The mobile node sends a message(location update request) to the network about its currentlocation.
The Spatial updation allows a Mobile Node (MN) to informto the cellular network whenever it moves from one locationarea to the next. The mobile nodes should send updation tobase station for receiving calls if any comes. When the mobilenode does not send the updation it might be considered as a notreachable MN or switched off MN.
The Temporal updation is performed based on the periodictime. The setting of interval time will be controlled by MSC. Inthe existing system the MN will inform the location of its exactplace periodically. The location of the mobile node will becarried out to MSC through BSC.Figure 4 gives the detailed operation of the existing updateof the temporal updation. In this Figure 4, MN sends LU(Location Update) signal to BSC, the BSC forwards signal toMSC for updation. At the same time BSC sendsAcknowledgement (ACK) to MN. After receiving signal fromBSC, the MSC sends Location Acknowledgement (LA) toBSC. At last the BSC forwards the LA signal to MN.istime taken for single updation between MN and MSC. Theoperations are performed regularly by the mobile network. Inthis method, the update function takes place whenever the MN
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011160http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500