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Ramadhan

Ramadhan

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Published by Shadab Anjum
There is all about ramadhan
There is all about ramadhan

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Published by: Shadab Anjum on Aug 19, 2008
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08/01/2011

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Page 1
 
Ramadhan Statement for the Muslim Community
An Al-Ghazzali Centre Awareness Paper, © 1426.
Reproduction of this document is permitted subject to its source and authorship being acknowledged
.
In the name of Allah, The Source of Mercy, The Merciful.
 Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated, “I heard Allah's Messenger (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) saying, “When you see the crescent (of Ramadhan), start  fasting, and when you see the crescent (of the month of Shawwal), stop fasting; and if the sky isovercast (and you can't see it) then regard the month of Ramadan as of 30 day.
1
 
 Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated, “Allah's Messenger (Theblessing and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “The month (can be) 29 nights and do not fast till you see the moon, and if the sky is overcast, then complete Sha'ban as thirty days”.
2
 
1. INTRODUCTION
Al-Ghazzali Centre for Islamic Sciences & Human Development considers the sighting of themoon as an important and integral responsibility upon Muslims,
Fardal-Kifaya
, in establishingFast in the Blessed month of Ramadhan. Whilst we are aware of the numerous positions heldby different communities, al-Ghazzali Centre does not intend to add or refute the practices of others. The aim of this Statement is for Muslims who are seeking accurate information aboutthe controversy, and act decisively on the matter with a clear conscience, to have the factsavailable to them.We make the following statements of fact:1.
 
One of the unfortunate issues plaguing our community is the issue of moon-sighting.This controversy revolves around determining what is the optimal criterion forestablishing the commencement and completion of Ramadhan. Al-Ghazzali Centreholds to the revival and transmission of traditional Islamic knowledge as a universallyapplicable System. We also recognise the validity of local moon sighting within acountry (based on
Ikhtilaful Matali’ 
and
Ittihadul Matali’ 
positions of Fiqh), as well as the
1
Bukhari 3:30:1900
2
 
Bukhari 3:30:1907
 
 
 
Page 2
 
choice to separate sighting due to regional time zones. Therefore Al-Ghazzali Centrerecognises the moon sighting from anywhere in Australia confirmed by credible Muslimwitnesses.2.
 
We acknowledge that astronomical calculations cannot be used as valid means fordetermining our Islamic dates. However, we do feel that scientific astronomicalcalculations, based on Islamic stipulated conditions, can act as a beneficial guide as towhen it is possible, or impossible, to sight the crescent moon.This report provides a brief statement based on the Sunnah as well as scientific data whichsupports the Sunnah, to clarify the following, pertaining particularly for the year 2005:i)
 
A brief information on the theology of observing the moon to establish the monthof Ramadhan as opposed to pre-determined calendars or statement to commence;ii)
 
why any pre-determined statement by any organisation in Australia, or calendarsasserting that 1
st
of Ramadhan commences on 5
th
October, ahead of moon sightingfor the year 2005 is incorrect, technically and ethically;iii)
 
The correct date to commence observing the crescent is 4
th
October, 2004, NOT3
rd
October.
2. THEOLOGY BEHIND ESTABLISHING THE MONTH OF RAMADHAN
The argument on the matter is simply twofold- sighting the moon physically or to use pre-determined scientific calculations to determine the months, and so indeed Ramadhan. Theargument for scientific pre-determination often is reduced to the assertion that because Allahhas Willed the ability of humans to calculate such matters, using science, we should accept thisproposition. This statement is usually backed by another assertion that observation was thebest methodology at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, upon whom be peace and blessingsof Allah, and that they did not have the knowledge or ability as humans have now.Al-Ghazzali Centre holds a different view, supported by a majority of Traditional Scholarsthroughout the world who reject pre-determined calculations. We do not aim to cause anyconflict in the community, however, we do not back away from the clear evidences availablethat pre-determination of the moon crescent appearance was never intended in the first place,neither by Allah, The Creator, nor His Messenger .
 
 
Page 3
 
2.1 Qur’anic Evidence
The first evidence we rely on is based on the Qur’an. The holistic understanding of thisevidence is commonly used in Fiqh for numerous other rulings, which are acceptable practice-
Qiyas
, or analogical deduction. In fact, the assertion that pre-determination is acceptable is alsobased on this tool of 
Ijtihaad 
.
The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind and clear  proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sightsthe month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home, witnessing the crescent), he must observeSaum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days whichone did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allah intends for you ease,and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete thesame number (of days), and that you must magnify Him for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.
3
 
The critical term in this verse is
“faman shahida minkum as-shahara”,
which means to the effect“those from you who have witnessed the month”. This verse has also been suggested to mean“those who are present at their home”. The meaning is still pointed towards presence andwitnessing the month.The argument is usually used to suggest that this “witnessing” can occur via pre-determinedcalculations, given that we have technologically advanced to calculate the phases of the moon.It will be articulated later, why this is incorrect in seeking to understand the objective of thisverse.The root meaning of the critical term
“shahida” 
refers to a
 witnessing which takes part ina physical form, as a form of proof 
. Scholars of Arabic Grammar agree on this byunanimous consensus. Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who was the first man tocollect Arabic words and elaborate its meaning, also clearly holds this view. Khalil, who usedibn Abbas’s collection to formulate the world’s first dictionary in any language (this of coursebeing in Arabic), published this fact in his works, “
‘Ayn
”. Scholars who study Grammarconsider this work to be the most authoritative in understanding the depths of meaning of Arabic words.
“Shahada” 
cannot happen in a simulated manner. It has to occur in a physical
3
Qur’an[2:185]

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