2.1 Qur’anic Evidence
The first evidence we rely on is based on the Qur’an. The holistic understanding of thisevidence is commonly used in Fiqh for numerous other rulings, which are acceptable practice-
, or analogical deduction. In fact, the assertion that pre-determination is acceptable is alsobased on this tool of
The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sightsthe month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home, witnessing the crescent), he must observeSaum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days whichone did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allah intends for you ease,and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete thesame number (of days), and that you must magnify Him for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.
The critical term in this verse is
“faman shahida minkum as-shahara”,
which means to the effect“those from you who have witnessed the month”. This verse has also been suggested to mean“those who are present at their home”. The meaning is still pointed towards presence andwitnessing the month.The argument is usually used to suggest that this “witnessing” can occur via pre-determinedcalculations, given that we have technologically advanced to calculate the phases of the moon.It will be articulated later, why this is incorrect in seeking to understand the objective of thisverse.The root meaning of the critical term
refers to a
witnessing which takes part ina physical form, as a form of proof
. Scholars of Arabic Grammar agree on this byunanimous consensus. Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who was the first man tocollect Arabic words and elaborate its meaning, also clearly holds this view. Khalil, who usedibn Abbas’s collection to formulate the world’s first dictionary in any language (this of coursebeing in Arabic), published this fact in his works, “
”. Scholars who study Grammarconsider this work to be the most authoritative in understanding the depths of meaning of Arabic words.
cannot happen in a simulated manner. It has to occur in a physical