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Table Of Contents

INTRODUCTION
TheSpecial Circumstances of the LaoPDR
Population and Employment
Health
Financial Situation and the Business Environment
Poverty and Income DistributionLevels
Levels of Human Development
Table 1.4: Poverty and Income Distribution 1997-2003
Table 1.5: Provincial HDI Calculations, 2002
Table 1.6: Trends and Levels of Human Development in the Lao PDR 1985 - 2003
Box 1.1: The ‘East Asian Pattern’ of Development
Relationships between Human Development and Trade
Table 1.7: Coverage of International Trade in the Report
Table 1.8: Potential Relationships between Trade and HumanDevelopment
Organization of the Report
Patterns of International Trade
An Overview
Table 2.1: Merchandise Imports and Exports 2000-2004 (Millions of Current US$)
MajorTrading Partners and Patterns
Table 2.2: TheLao PDRTrading Partners and Trading Patterns 2004
Table 2.3: A Comparison of the NeighbouringEconomies 2003
Informal and Cross-Border Trade
Table 2.4: Characteristics of Formal and Informal Trade in the Lao PDR
Table 2.5: Estimates of the Extent of Informal Cross-Border Trade
Table 2.6: Estimates of Who Benefits from Informal Cross-Border Trade
Box 2.1: A Woman Trader
Governance and the Policy Environment: Trade Policy and Implementation
Tariff Measures
TariffReductions and Exemptions
Non-Tariff Measures
Customs
‘Behind-the-Border’ Policies
Why and How Trade is Informal
Table 2.7: Summary of Export Restrictions Leading to Informal Trade
Table 2.8: Summary of Import Restrictions Leading to Informal Trade
Trade Agreements
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Policies of Trading Partners: Trade Preferences and Trade Problems
Thailand
Table 2.9: Thailand’s Estimated Applied TariffRates 2001-2003
Table 2.10: Usage of Form D (2001-2005)
Table 2.11: Usage of Form AISP (2003-2005)
TheEarlyHarvest Program (EHP) - ASEAN/ China Free Trade Area (FTA)
Vietnam
European Union’s Generalized System of Preference (EU-GSP)
Policy Choices for the Future
Manufactured Exports: Garments
Overview
Constraints
Table 3.2: Lao Garment Industry - Ownership and Production
Outlook for the Future: Impact of Trade Agreements and Competition
Manufactured Exports: Wood Products
Structure of the Industry: Production, Design and Marketing
Table 3.3: Wood Processing Factories by Province in 2001
Figure 3.1 New Plantations Areas 1975-2004
Worker Background, Pay and Work Patterns
Outlook for the Future
Manufactured Exports: Processed Food
Structure of the Industry
Workers, Working Conditions and Linkages
Handicrafts
Structure
Table 3.5: Markets for Rattan Products Produced in Vientiane Capital35
Problems and Constraints
Earnings, Equity, and OtherImpacts on HumanDevelopment
Box 3.1: Phaeng Mai Gallery
Box 3.2: Rattan Sales
Preservation of Culture
International Tourism
Table 3.6: Tourist Arrivals to the Lao PDR by Category 2003-2004
Table 3.7: Revenue from Tourism by Category 2004
Indirect Employment, Estimated Multipliers, andOtherImpacts
Agriculture
Structure and Potential
Current and Potential Exports
Labour Exports
Characteristics of Migrants and Patterns of Migration
Table 3.10: Characteristics of SampledLao Migrants
Table 3.11: Distribution of SES Groups by Countries of Migration
Table 3.12: Lao Migrants Planning to Return to Thailand
Why They Migrate
Box 3.3: Women Migrants and Poverty: Before and After
Table 3.13: Reasons for Migration by Gender
Box 3.4: A Migrant Manager and a Security Guard
Remittances
Table 3.14: Exchange Rate Lao Kip to USDollar 1994-2003
Box 3.5: Why Cash Matters: ‘Informal Insurance’ and School Fees
Table 3.15: Use of Remittances
OtherImpacts: Individual, Social and Cultural
Normalization
Summary of Employment: Urban, Rural and Gender Impacts
Table 3.16: Average Cost of Migration
Table 3.17: Direct Employment by Type of Export and by Gender 2002-2004
Mining and Mineral Exports45
Small-Scale ‘Artisanal’ Mining
Sepon
Box 4.1: Women Drivers
ATin Mine: Nam Pathene Valley, Khammouane Province
Outlook
Timber Exports
Why the Exports Continue
Future Outlook
Electricity Exports49
The Potential
Impacts on Employment52
Impacts of Infrastructure
Impacts of Electrification
Box 4.2: The Benefits of All-Weather Roads
Box 4.3: The Benefits of Electrification
Box 4.4: Ban Phou Khao Khouay: Electricity and Handicrafts
Box 4.5: Resettlement: What Some Villagers Said
Environmental Impacts
Reduced Imports and Support for Industry
Macroeconomic and BudgetEffects: Future Outlook
Transit Trade and Over-Flights
Transit Trade53
Table 4.2: Transit Trade 2003-2004
Over-Flights
5Te impact of imports on human development is
Impacts on Trade Facilitation, Infrastructure and Transport
THE IMPACT OF IMPORTS ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Impacts of Imports on Exports
Exports that are Labour-Intensive
Table 5.1: Imports Needed for Manufactured Exports
Impacts on OtherExports
Impacts of Imports onEmployment and Lao Firms
Increased Competition from Imports
Employment in Cross-Border Trade and RetailSales
Television, Language and Culture
Impacts of Imports on Consumption
Box 5.3: Changing Patterns of Consumption
Table 5.2: Lao Consumption and Expenditure
Imports and Human Development
SUMMARY, SCENARIOS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR POLICY
Positive Contributions of International Trade
Cross-Border Trade - ‘Democratic’ Access to Trading Opportunities
Table 6.1: Population Growth in Border Districts (1995-2005)
Migration and Remittances
Employment
Rural Electrification
Better Information
Government Revenues
SomeNegative Impacts of International Trade
Commodity Price Cycles
Threats to the Environment and Quality of Life
Table 6.2: Environmental Challenges and Policy Options
Mistreatment of Workers
Threats to Lao Culture
Shocks
Threats to Employment
Future Scenarios: Export Composition
Table 6.3: Comparison of Investment Needed to Create OneExport Job
Loss of Employment Scenario
Table 6.4: Loss of Employment Scenario: 2004-2010
‘Better Case’ Scenario
Table 6.5: ‘Better Case’ Scenario: 2004-2010
SomeSuggestions for Policy
DoNothing
Do More - At Little or No Cost to the Government Budget
Do More - With Increased Expenditure of the Government Budget
National and International Data Sources on Human Development Indicators
Comparisons Over Time
DEFINITIONS OF STATISTICAL TERMS
REFERENCES
ANNEX
International Trade Data
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Lao PDR HDR

Lao PDR HDR

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Published by Dinh Manh Quan

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Published by: Dinh Manh Quan on Feb 15, 2011
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