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Table Of Contents

TheSpecial Circumstances of the LaoPDR
Population and Employment
Financial Situation and the Business Environment
Poverty and Income DistributionLevels
Levels of Human Development
Table 1.4: Poverty and Income Distribution 1997-2003
Table 1.5: Provincial HDI Calculations, 2002
Table 1.6: Trends and Levels of Human Development in the Lao PDR 1985 - 2003
Box 1.1: The ‘East Asian Pattern’ of Development
Relationships between Human Development and Trade
Table 1.7: Coverage of International Trade in the Report
Table 1.8: Potential Relationships between Trade and HumanDevelopment
Organization of the Report
Patterns of International Trade
An Overview
Table 2.1: Merchandise Imports and Exports 2000-2004 (Millions of Current US$)
MajorTrading Partners and Patterns
Table 2.2: TheLao PDRTrading Partners and Trading Patterns 2004
Table 2.3: A Comparison of the NeighbouringEconomies 2003
Informal and Cross-Border Trade
Table 2.4: Characteristics of Formal and Informal Trade in the Lao PDR
Table 2.5: Estimates of the Extent of Informal Cross-Border Trade
Table 2.6: Estimates of Who Benefits from Informal Cross-Border Trade
Box 2.1: A Woman Trader
Governance and the Policy Environment: Trade Policy and Implementation
Tariff Measures
TariffReductions and Exemptions
Non-Tariff Measures
‘Behind-the-Border’ Policies
Why and How Trade is Informal
Table 2.7: Summary of Export Restrictions Leading to Informal Trade
Table 2.8: Summary of Import Restrictions Leading to Informal Trade
Trade Agreements
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Policies of Trading Partners: Trade Preferences and Trade Problems
Table 2.9: Thailand’s Estimated Applied TariffRates 2001-2003
Table 2.10: Usage of Form D (2001-2005)
Table 2.11: Usage of Form AISP (2003-2005)
TheEarlyHarvest Program (EHP) - ASEAN/ China Free Trade Area (FTA)
European Union’s Generalized System of Preference (EU-GSP)
Policy Choices for the Future
Manufactured Exports: Garments
Table 3.2: Lao Garment Industry - Ownership and Production
Outlook for the Future: Impact of Trade Agreements and Competition
Manufactured Exports: Wood Products
Structure of the Industry: Production, Design and Marketing
Table 3.3: Wood Processing Factories by Province in 2001
Figure 3.1 New Plantations Areas 1975-2004
Worker Background, Pay and Work Patterns
Outlook for the Future
Manufactured Exports: Processed Food
Structure of the Industry
Workers, Working Conditions and Linkages
Table 3.5: Markets for Rattan Products Produced in Vientiane Capital35
Problems and Constraints
Earnings, Equity, and OtherImpacts on HumanDevelopment
Box 3.1: Phaeng Mai Gallery
Box 3.2: Rattan Sales
Preservation of Culture
International Tourism
Table 3.6: Tourist Arrivals to the Lao PDR by Category 2003-2004
Table 3.7: Revenue from Tourism by Category 2004
Indirect Employment, Estimated Multipliers, andOtherImpacts
Structure and Potential
Current and Potential Exports
Labour Exports
Characteristics of Migrants and Patterns of Migration
Table 3.10: Characteristics of SampledLao Migrants
Table 3.11: Distribution of SES Groups by Countries of Migration
Table 3.12: Lao Migrants Planning to Return to Thailand
Why They Migrate
Box 3.3: Women Migrants and Poverty: Before and After
Table 3.13: Reasons for Migration by Gender
Box 3.4: A Migrant Manager and a Security Guard
Table 3.14: Exchange Rate Lao Kip to USDollar 1994-2003
Box 3.5: Why Cash Matters: ‘Informal Insurance’ and School Fees
Table 3.15: Use of Remittances
OtherImpacts: Individual, Social and Cultural
Summary of Employment: Urban, Rural and Gender Impacts
Table 3.16: Average Cost of Migration
Table 3.17: Direct Employment by Type of Export and by Gender 2002-2004
Mining and Mineral Exports45
Small-Scale ‘Artisanal’ Mining
Box 4.1: Women Drivers
ATin Mine: Nam Pathene Valley, Khammouane Province
Timber Exports
Why the Exports Continue
Future Outlook
Electricity Exports49
The Potential
Impacts on Employment52
Impacts of Infrastructure
Impacts of Electrification
Box 4.2: The Benefits of All-Weather Roads
Box 4.3: The Benefits of Electrification
Box 4.4: Ban Phou Khao Khouay: Electricity and Handicrafts
Box 4.5: Resettlement: What Some Villagers Said
Environmental Impacts
Reduced Imports and Support for Industry
Macroeconomic and BudgetEffects: Future Outlook
Transit Trade and Over-Flights
Transit Trade53
Table 4.2: Transit Trade 2003-2004
5Te impact of imports on human development is
Impacts on Trade Facilitation, Infrastructure and Transport
Impacts of Imports on Exports
Exports that are Labour-Intensive
Table 5.1: Imports Needed for Manufactured Exports
Impacts on OtherExports
Impacts of Imports onEmployment and Lao Firms
Increased Competition from Imports
Employment in Cross-Border Trade and RetailSales
Television, Language and Culture
Impacts of Imports on Consumption
Box 5.3: Changing Patterns of Consumption
Table 5.2: Lao Consumption and Expenditure
Imports and Human Development
Positive Contributions of International Trade
Cross-Border Trade - ‘Democratic’ Access to Trading Opportunities
Table 6.1: Population Growth in Border Districts (1995-2005)
Migration and Remittances
Rural Electrification
Better Information
Government Revenues
SomeNegative Impacts of International Trade
Commodity Price Cycles
Threats to the Environment and Quality of Life
Table 6.2: Environmental Challenges and Policy Options
Mistreatment of Workers
Threats to Lao Culture
Threats to Employment
Future Scenarios: Export Composition
Table 6.3: Comparison of Investment Needed to Create OneExport Job
Loss of Employment Scenario
Table 6.4: Loss of Employment Scenario: 2004-2010
‘Better Case’ Scenario
Table 6.5: ‘Better Case’ Scenario: 2004-2010
SomeSuggestions for Policy
Do More - At Little or No Cost to the Government Budget
Do More - With Increased Expenditure of the Government Budget
National and International Data Sources on Human Development Indicators
Comparisons Over Time
International Trade Data
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Published by Dinh Manh Quan

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Published by: Dinh Manh Quan on Feb 15, 2011
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