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Tech No Craft

Tech No Craft

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Published by coepcesa
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Published by: coepcesa on Feb 15, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Water Harvesting
Living creatures of the universe are made of five basic elements, viz., Earth, Water, Fire, Airand Sky, Obviously, water is one of the most important elements and no creature can survivewithout it. Despite having a great regard for water, we seem to have failed to address this sectorseriously. Human being could not save and conserve water and it sources, probably because of itsavailability in abundance. But this irresponsible attitude resulted in deterioration of water bodieswith respect to quantity and quality both. Now, situation has arrived when even a single drop of 
water matters. However “better late than never", we have not realized the seriousness of this issue
and initiated efforts to overcome those problems.Problem?Although India occupies only 3.29 million km geographical area, which forms 2.4% of theworld's land area, it supports over 15% of world's population. The population of India as of March 1,2001 was 1,027,015,247 persons (Census, 2001). India also has a livestock population of 500 million,which is about 20% of world's total livestock. However total annual utilizable water resources of thecountry are 1086 km which is only 4% of world's water resources. Total annual utilizable resources of surface water and ground water are 690 km and 396 km respectively (Ministry of Water Resources,1999). Consequent to rapid growth in population and increasing water demand, stress on waterresources in India is increasing and per capita water availability is reducing day by day. In India percapita surface water availability in the years 1991 and 2001 were 2300 m (6.3 m /day) and 1980 m(5.7 m /day) respectively and these are projected to reduce to 1401 and 1191 m by the years 2025and 2050 respectively. Total water requirement of the country in 2050 is estimated to be 1450 kmwhich is higher than the current availability of 1086 km. various options including rainwaterharvesting and wastewater reuse will have to be considered to meet the anticipated deficit.As the water crisis continues to become severe, there is a need of reform in watermanagement system and revival of traditional systems. A scientific and technological study needs tobe carried out to assess present status so as to suggest suitable measures for the revival totraditional system/wisdom. Revival process should necessarily be backed by people's initiative andactive public participation.In the present scenario management and distribution of water has become centralized.People depend on government system, which has resulted in disruption of community participationin water management and collapse of traditional water harvesting system.
The future water condition
Water availability will be to 1 person out of 3.
Water quality will become unsafe in majority of the places.
No food to 1/3 of the population.
Many water borne diseases like Fluorosis, Dementia, Diarrhea, Cancer etc. will be orderof the day.
There will be fight for water between
Man to man.
City to city.
State to state.
Country to country
Possible third world war?
Solution -
The simple cost, effective solution is water harvesting. There is much quantity of waterwhich can be harvested to a very large extent. It is the need of today that not a single drop of watershould be wasted and let down into the soil unused.Water that can be harvested
Rain water- Water received by earth by natural precipitation and infiltrating into the soildirectly.
Storm water- Water received by natural precipitation and flowing through storm waterdrains which are ultimately let into the river, polluting the river to a large extent.
Grey water- Domestic water which flows through the drains of residential buildings.

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