Department of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering Pune
From ancient times we have seen that establishment and rise of civilizations took place near water bodies. Only those kingdoms flourished which were along the river basins. So rivers are the mostimportant as far as human survival is concerned. But on contrast today the scenario is very different.
Rivers are merely treated as conduits to sewage waste which is created every day in big cities.The main objective is to find an alternate but efficient solution for treating waste water and storm water runoff.
Water Quality Wetlands
are a key treatment measure for nitrogen reduction and also help tomanage other important water quality issues such as phosphorus, suspended sediments and other toxicants. The aim of the storm and sewage water quality treatment is to reduce pollutants loads fromthe urban areas.
Figure 1: Schematic Representation of Constructed Wetland
India desperately needs strategies to manage its human waste. Out of
of waste-water generated in the country, only about
) is treated before disposal.According to a survey by
, a NGO, out of the 3,119 big and small cities in India, only
) have centralized STP. A closer analysis reveals that
of the STPs operate below their design capacity with
of them being defunct. All this untreated waste is dumped into the rivers dueto which water pollution has increased to such an extent that, the pats of rivers (
through cities have been declared
. Moreover in many cities the storm water drains are directlylet into the rivers which may lead to critical situation.
Constructed wetland mainly consists of four zones viz.
pre treatment zone, inlet zone, ephemeral