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2_(eBook - English) Making Biodiesel - Joshua Tickell's - (Free Energy - Biodiesel)

2_(eBook - English) Making Biodiesel - Joshua Tickell's - (Free Energy - Biodiesel)

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Published by: Vishal on Feb 15, 2011
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85
Home Power #72  •  August / September 1999 
GoPower
tabletop press for around US$1,000. Although the pressusually comes with a 240V/50 cycle electric motor, youcan buy the press with a 120V/60 cycle motor from theU.S. distributor. The press looks like a powerful juicer.To operate it, pour the oilseed into the funnel and waitfor the vegetable oil to pour out of the bottom. The mealoozes out of the side of the press.
The Three Ways to Use Vegetable Oil as a Fuel
Diesel engines that are found in cars, trucks,generators, boats, buses, trains, planes, pumpingstations, tractors, and agricultural equipment can all runon fuel from vegetable oil. Pure vegetable oil, lard, andused cooking oil work just as well as diesel fuel.
Biodiesel
The most conventional method of running a dieselengine on vegetable oil fuel is to produce a fuel calledbiodiesel. Biodiesel is made by combining 10 to 20percent alcohol with 0.35 to 0.75 percent lye and 80 to90 percent vegetable oil. A very reliable reaction can bemade with 80 parts new vegetable oil, 20 partsmethanol, and 0.35 parts lye. These ingredients aremixed together for an hour and left to settle for eighthours.After the chemical reaction is complete and the newproducts settle out, you have biodiesel fuel and glycerinsoap. The fuel is yellow to amber in color and flows likewater. The soap is brown in color and has theconsistency of gelatin. The soap settles to the bottom,allowing you to pump, siphon, or pour off the biodiesel.
Veggie/Kero Mix
The second method for using vegetable oil in a dieselengine is to simply “cut” the oil with kerosene. Thismethod is best suited for emergencies, heavy dutyengines, and warm temperatures. Although it ispossible to mix other petroleum products with vegetableoil, kerosene is most suited for the diesel engine.Depending on ambient temperature, the blend ofkerosene to vegetable oil will be anywhere from 10percent kerosene and 90 percent vegetable oil to 40percent kerosene and 60 percent vegetable oil. A fairlyreliable blend is 20 percent kerosene to 80 percentvegetable oil.The effectiveness and reliability of the veggie/keromethod is increased by starting and cooling down thediesel engine on diesel fuel or biodiesel fuel. This canbe accomplished by installing an extra fuel tank andswitching to the veggie/kero mix when the engine iswarmed up.
Straight Vegetable Oil
The third method for running a diesel engine onvegetable oil is to use straight vegetable oil. As with theother methods, you can use either pure vegetable oil orused cooking oil. To ensure the reliability and longevityof your diesel engine, the engine must be started andcooled down on diesel or biodiesel fuel. This alsorequires the use of an extra fuel tank and a valve toswitch between the tank of diesel or biodiesel fuel andthe tank of vegetable oil. Think of it as a startup tankand a running tank.The key to running a diesel on straight vegetable oil isto heat the vegetable oil at every stagein the fueltank, fuel hose, and fuel filter. The vegetable oil must beheated to at least 70°C (160°F).Most diesel engines have hoses that carry hot coolant.This coolant can be channeled to heat the vegetable oilhoses, tank, and filter. You can make simplemodifications to the coolant hoses. These modificationscombined with some extra fuel and oil hoses, an extrafuel tank, and an electrically operated switch will allowyou to run your diesel engine on straight vegetable oil.
Fuel Comparison
The chart will show you the differences between thethree vegetable oil fuel methods. As you can see,biodiesel is a good substitute or additive fuel for dieselfuel. Veggie/kero mix is decent for use as anemergency fuel. And using straight vegetable oil is goodif you have the time and know-how to properly modify
Our friend,Hugo Brown,pouring grease.A container ofused cooking oil can be found behind most restaurants.
 
86
Home Power #72  •  August / September 1999 
GoPower
your engine’s heating and fuel tank systems. Dieselengines are used in many different situations. For eachsituation, there is a way to make fuel from vegetable oil.
How to Make Biodiesel
This section outlines the process for making biodieselfuel from new vegetable oil or used cooking oil. Thisfuel can be made in a blender or in a larger, homebuiltmixer. The materials you’ll need are vegetable oil,methanol, and lye.If you are using new vegetable oil, always use 3.5grams of lye per liter of oil. Since each batch of
used 
cooking oil is different, the amount of lye in each batchof biodiesel will be different. To ensure that you areusing the correct amount of lye, make a small test batchof biodiesel in a blender before attempting a reaction ina large mixing tank. For the test batch, use 100milliliters of vegetable oil and 20milliliters of methanol. Then youmust determine how much lye touse.If you are using used vegetable oil,use 0.45 grams of lye for the firsttest batch. If this batch makesbiodiesel and glycerin, use the sameproportions for the large batchreaction. If the test batch does notform two distinct layers, increase theamount of lye to 0.55 grams andmake another test batch. If thisbatch is unsuccessful, make anotherbatch and increase the amount oflye to 0.65 grams. If that batch isunsuccessful, make another batchwith 0.75 grams of lye. Make sureyou can make biodiesel on a smallscale before attempting a largereaction.Once you have made a successfulsmall test batch of biodiesel, multiplythe number of grams of lye you usedby ten to see how much lye you willneed for each liter of oil in the largereaction. For example, if you used0.55 grams of lye in the test batch,you will need to use 5.5 grams of lyeper liter of used cooking oil for alarge reaction.Here is the basic procedure formaking biodiesel fuel. Read thesafety information at the end of thisarticle before you begin.1. Purchase or collect new or used vegetable oil.2. If the oil is used cooking oil, use a restaurant fryerfilter to remove burned food bits, etc.3. Purchase some methanol alcohol from a localracetrack or chemical supply store. Ethanol alcoholcan also be used, but the process is different.4. Purchase some granulated lye (Red Devil is onebrand) or caustic soda sold as a drain cleaner fromthe hardware or grocery store. It must be puresodium hydroxide (NaOH).5. Measure the amount of vegetable oil you want touse in liters. We will call this number V. Pour thevegetable oil into the mixing container.6. When the temperature is below 70°F (21°C), orwhen the vegetable oil is solid or lumpy, it will be
Comparison of Different Vegetable Oil Fuel Methods
Property BiodieseVeggie/Kero Mix Straight Veggie Oil 
Can be used as lubrication additive to diesel fuelyes no noRequires vehicle modificationno yes yesReliably cuts emissions in all diesel enginesyes no unknown *Considered an alternative fuel under theUnited States Energy Policy Act (EPACT)yes no yes **Simple way to run a vehicle in an emergencyno yes noStable fuel at room temperatureyes no noRequires added chemicals to produceyes yes noRequires startup tank of biodiesel or diesel fuelno yes yesGood startup fuelyes no noBetter lubrication than diesel fuelyes yes yesGels in cold weatheryes yes yesCovered by many engine warrantiesyes no noCan be made from used cooking oilyes yes yesCan be made from pure vegetable oilyes yes yesSafe to store and handle, biodegradable, won'tspontaneously ignite, and non-toxicyes no yesWorks in all diesel enginesyes yes yesCan be reliably mixed in any proportion withdiesel fuel without vehicle modificationyes no noApproved for use by EPACT in a 20% mixwith 80% diesel fuel ***yes no noEngine life, power, torque, fuel mileage, andoverall performance are relatively unaffectedyes yes yesCan clog fuel injectors if used improperlyno yes yesRequires heating for operation at any temperatureno no yesTested and documented by U.S. universitiesyes no yesPossible substitute for home heating oil in furnaces yes no noCan be used in Petromax brand and similarlanterns and stovesyes no yes
*  No recent U.S. University studies have been published on this.**  Under EPACT regulations, any biologically-derived fuel is considered an alternative fuel.*** EPACT legislation states that a fleet must use a minimum of 450 gallons (1703 l) of biodiesel per year.

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