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Table Of Contents

1.1Summary of steps in emergency triage assessment and treatment
1. ETAT CHART 3. How to manage the choking infant
CHART 5. How to give oxygen
CHART 6. How to position the unconscious child
CHART 10. How to give IV glucose
1.2Notes for the assessment of emergency and priority signs
1.4Diagnostic considerations of children presenting with emergency conditions
1.4.1Child presenting with an airway or severe breathing problem
Table 2.Differential diagnosis of the child presenting with shock
CHILD PRESENTING WITH SHOCK
1.4.2Child presenting with shock
1.5Common poisonings
1.5.1Principles for ingested poisons
COMMON POISONINGS
PRINCIPLES FOR INGESTED POISONS
1.5.2Principles for poisons in contact with skin or eyes
PRINCIPLES FOR POISONS IN CONTACT WITH SKIN OR EYES
1.5.3Principles of inhaled poisons
1.5.4Specific poisons
Corrosive compounds
Petroleum compounds
Organo-phosphorus and carbamate compounds
PRINCIPLES OF INHALED POISONS
Paracetamol
PARACETAMOL
Iron
1.6Snake bite
1.7Scorpion sting
SCORPION STING
1.8Other sources of envenoming
OTHER SOURCES OF ENVENOMING
2.1Relationship to the IMCI approach
2.2Taking the history
APPROACH TO THE SICK CHILD
2.3Approach to the sick child and clinical examination
2.4Laboratory investigations
2.5Differential diagnoses
LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS
3.1Routine care of the newborn at delivery
3.2Neonatal resuscitation
ROUTINE CARE OF THE NEWBORN AT DELIVERY
3.4Prevention of neonatal infections
ROUTINE CARE FOR ALL NEWBORN BABIES AFTER DELIVERY
3.5Management of the child with perinatal asphyxia
3.6Danger signs in newborns and young infants
3.7Serious bacterial infection
SERIOUS BACTERIAL INFECTION
3.8Meningitis
3.9Supportive care for the sick neonate
3.9.2Fluid management
SUPPORTIVE CARE FOR THE SICK NEONATE
3.9.3Oxygen therapy
OXYGEN THERAPY
3.9.4High fever
3.10Babies with low birth weight
3.10.1Babies with birth weight between 2.25 and 2.5 kg
3.10.2Babies with birth weight between 1.75 and 2.25 kg
HIGH FEVER
3.10.3Babies with birth weight below 1.75 kg
3.11Necrotizing enterocolitis
NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS
3.12Other common neonatal problems
3.12.1Jaundice
CONJUNCTIVITIS
3.12.2Conjunctivitis
3.12.3Congenital malformations
3.13Babies of mothers with infections
3.13.1Congenital syphilis
CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS
3.13.2Baby of a mother with tuberculosis
3.13.3Baby of a mother with HIV
BABY OF MOTHER WITH TUBERCULOSIS
4.1Child presenting with cough
4.2Pneumonia
Table 7.Classification of the severity of pneumonia
PNEUMONIA
4.2.1Very severe pneumonia
4.2.2Severe pneumonia
4.2.3Pneumonia (non-severe)
PNEUMONIA (NON-SEVERE)
4.2.4Pleural effusion and empyema
PLEURAL EFFUSION AND EMPYEMA
4.3Cough or cold
4.4Conditions presenting with wheeze
Table 8.Differential diagnosis of the child presenting with wheeze
4.4.1Bronchiolitis
4.4.2Asthma
4.4.3Wheeze with cough or cold
4.5Conditions presenting with stridor
CONDITIONS PRESENTING WITH STRIDOR
Table 9.Differential diagnosis of the child presenting with stridor
4.5.1Viral croup
4.5.2Diphtheria
4.6Conditions presenting with chronic cough
4.7Pertussis
4.8Tuberculosis
4.9Foreign body inhalation
4.10Heart failure
5.1Child presenting with diarrhoea
Table 11.Differential diagnosis of the child presenting with diarrhoea
5.2Acute diarrhoea
ACUTE DIARRHOEA
5.2.1Severe dehydration
Table 13.Administration of IV fluid to a severely dehydrated child
CHART 13.Diarrhoea Treatment Plan C: Treat severe dehydration quickly
5.2.2Some dehydration
CHART 14.Diarrhoea Treatment Plan B: Treat some dehydration with ORS
5.2.3No dehydration
CHART 15.Diarrhoea Treatment Plan A: Treat diarrhoea at home
5.3Persistent diarrhoea
5.3.1Severe persistent diarrhoea
PERSISTENT DIARRHOEA
5.3.2Persistent diarrhoea (non-severe)
PERSISTENT DIARRHOEA (NON-SEVERE)
5.4Dysentery
6.1Child presenting with fever
Table 16.Differential diagnosis of fever without localizing signs
Table 17.Differential diagnosis of fever with localized signs
Table 18.Differential diagnosis of fever with rash
6.1.1Fever lasting longer than 7 days
6.2Malaria
6.2.1Severe malaria
MALARIA
6.2.2Malaria (non-severe)
6.3Meningitis
MEASLES
6.4.2Measles (non-severe)
MEASLES (NON-SEVERE)
6.5Septicaemia
SEPTICAEMIA
6.6Typhoid fever
6.7Ear infections
6.7.1Mastoiditis
EAR INFECTIONS
6.7.2Acute otitis media
ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA
6.7.3Chronic otitis media
6.8Urinary tract infection
CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA
6.9Septic arthritis or osteomyelitis
SEPTIC ARTHRITIS OR OSTEOMYELITIS
DENGUE
6.10Dengue
6.10.1Severe dengue
7.1Diagnosis
7.2Initial assessment of the severely malnourished child
DIAGNOSIS
7.3Organization of care
7.4General treatment
ORGANIZATION OF CARE
7.4.1Hypoglycaemia
HYPOGLYCAEMIA
7.4.2Hypothermia
HYPOTHERMIA
7.4.3 Dehydration
DEHYDRATION
ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE
7.4.4Electrolyte imbalance
7.4.5Infection
INFECTION
MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES
7.4.6Micronutrient deficiencies
7.4.7 Initial refeeding
7.5.3Skin lesions in kwashiorkor
7.5.4Continuing diarrhoea
7.5.5Tuberculosis
7.6Discharge and follow-up
7.7Monitoring the quality of care
7.7.1Mortality audit
MONITORING THE QUALITY OF CARE
7.7.2Weight gain during rehabilitation phase
8.1 Sick child with suspected or confirmed HIV infection
8.1.1Clinical diagnosis
SICK CHILD WITH SUSPECTED OR CONFIRMED HIV INFECTION
8.1.2Counselling
8.1.3Testing and diagnosis of HIV infection in children
TESTING AND DIAGNOSIS OF HIV INFECTION IN CHILDREN
8.1.4Clinical staging
Table 22. The WHO paediatric clinical staging system
8.2Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
8.2.1Antiretroviral drugs
ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY (ART)
Table 24.Possible first-line treatment regimens for children
8.2.3Side-effects of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring
Table 26.Common side-effects of antiretroviral drugs
WHEN TO CHANGE TREATMENT
8.2.4When to change treatment
8.3Other treatment for the HIV-positive child
8.3.1Immunization
8.3.2Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis
OTHER TREATMENT FOR THE HIV-POSITIVE CHILD
8.3.3Nutrition
8.4Management of HIV-related conditions
8.4.1Tuberculosis
8.4.2Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia (PCP)
MANAGEMENT OF HIV-RELATED CONDITIONS
8.4.3Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP)
LYMPHOID INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS (LIP)
8.4.4Fungal infections
FUNGAL INFECTIONS
8.4.5Kaposi sarcoma
8.5HIV transmission and breastfeeding
KAPOSI SARCOMA
8.6Follow-up
FOLLOW-UP
8.7Palliative and end-of-life care
PALLIATIVE AND END-OF-LIFE CARE
9.1Care before, during and after surgery
9.1.1Preoperative care
PREOPERATIVE CARE
9.1.2Intraoperative care
Table 28. Endotracheal tube size, by age
Table 29. Blood volume of children by age
9.1.3Postoperative care
Table 30. Normal pulse rate and blood pressure in children
9.2Newborn and neonatal problems
9.2.1Cleft lip and palate
NEWBORN AND NEONATAL PROBLEMS
9.2.2Bowel obstruction in the newborn
9.2.3Abdominal wall defects
ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECTS
9.2.4Myelomeningocele
9.2.5Congenital dislocation of the hip
MYELOMENINGOCELE
9.2.6Talipes equinovarus (club foot)
TALIPES EQUINOVARUS (CLUB FOOT)
9.3Injuries
9.3.1Burns
INJURIES
9.3.2Principles of wound care
9.3.3Fractures
HEAD INJURIES
9.3.4Head injuries
9.3.5Chest and abdominal injuries
9.4Abdominal problems
9.4.1Abdominal pain
CHEST AND ABDOMINAL INJURIES
9.4.2Appendicitis
APPENDICITIS
9.4.3Bowel obstruction beyond the newborn period
BOWEL OBSTRUCTION BEYOND THE NEWBORN PERIOD
9.4.4Intussusception
INTUSSUSCEPTION
9.4.5Umbilical hernia
9.4.6Inguinal hernia
UMBILICAL HERNIA
Umbilical hernia
Inguinal hernia
9.4.7Incarcerated hernias
9.4.8Rectal prolapse
INCARCERATED HERNIAS
9.5Infections requiring surgery
9.5.1Abscess
SEPTIC ARTHRITIS
9.5.4Pyomyositis
10.1Nutritional management
10.1.1Supporting breastfeeding
10.1.2Nutritional management of sick children
NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF SICK CHILDREN
CHART 16. Feeding recommendations during sickness and health*
South Africa and Tanzania
10.2Fluid management
Table 32.Maintenance fluid requirements
FLUID MANAGEMENT
10.3Management of fever
MANAGEMENT OF FEVER
10.4Pain control
PAIN CONTROL
10.5Management of anaemia
MANAGEMENT OF ANAEMIA
10.6Blood transfusion
10.6.1Storage of blood
10.6.2Problems with blood transfusion
10.6.3Indications for blood transfusion
BLOOD TRANSFUSION
10.6.4Giving a blood transfusion
GIVING A BLOOD TRANSFUSION
10.6.5Transfusion reactions
10.7Oxygen therapy
10.8Toys and play therapy
11.1Monitoring procedures
11.2Monitoring chart
11.3Audit of paediatric care
MONITORING CHART
12.1Timing of discharge from hospital
12.2Counselling
COUNSELLING
12.3Nutrition counselling
NUTRITION COUNSELLING
12.4Home treatment
12.5Checking the mother’s own health
HOME TREATMENT
12.6Checking immunization status
CHECKING IMMUNIZATION STATUS
12.7Communicating with the first-level health worker
COMMUNICATING WITH THE FIRST-LEVEL HEALTH WORKER
12.8Providing follow-up care
PROVIDING FOLLOW-UP CARE
Further reading
A1.1Giving injections
A1.1.1Intramuscular
GIVING INJECTIONS
A1.1.2Subcutaneous
A1.1.3Intradermal
A1.2Procedures for giving parenteral fluids
A1.2.1Insertion of an indwelling IV cannula in a peripheral vein
A1.2.2Intraosseous infusion
A1.2.3Central vein cannulation
A1.2.4Venous cut-down
A1.6Supra-pubic aspiration
A1.7Measuring blood glucose
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bagus na Hospital care for children WHO

bagus na Hospital care for children WHO

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Published by: willyasa on Feb 16, 2011
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