bished and flown aboard Meteor-3 in August1991. Meteor-3/TOMS provided critical scien-tific data until December 1994.A new series of TOMS instruments was de-veloped to monitor the long-term trend of glo-bal total ozone and to continue the study of ozone loss and the Antarctic ozone hole. Thefirst of these, Earth Probe TOMS, was launchedaboard Earth Probe (EP) in July 1996, and isstill operating. A TOMS instrument was alsolaunched aboard the Japanese ADEOS satellite,in August 1996: and operated until June 1997when the satellite’s solar array failed.On June 17, 1992, the United States and theRussian Federation signed an agreement con-cerning cooperation in the exploration and useof outer space for peaceful purposes. In Decem-ber 1994, NASA and the Russian Space Agency(RSA) signed an agreement to fly a TOMSaboard a Russian Meteor-3M spacecraft. How-ever, because of delays, NASA and RSA agreedto halt cooperation on the mission. In order tomeet the critical science window, the primaryscience objectives of NASA, and the environ-mental information needs of the internationalcommunity, QuikTOMS was conceived.
The primary science objective of NASA’sTOMS mission is to continue the ongoing mea-surements of the Earth’s atmospheric ozone be-gun with Nimbus 7 in 1978 and currently beingmeasured by the NASA Earth Probe (EP)/TOMSmission.Secondary mission objectives are to: mea-sure ultraviolet absorbing tropospheric aerosols;detect and measure non-absorbing aerosol pol-lution plumes; estimate surface ultraviolet irra-diance and reflectivity; and detect and measurevolcanic emissions to assist the U.S. FederalAviation Administration (FAA).
NASA Headquarter’s Office of Earth Sci-ence (OES) manages the overall Earth Explorerand TOMS programs. The Earth Explorers Pro-gram Office is responsible for the managementof all Earth Explorers Projects assigned toGoddard, which includes the QuikTOMSProject. The QuikTOMS Project Office is re-sponsible for the management of the QuikTOMSmission through definition, development, inte-gration and test, launch and on-orbit checkout.The TOMS program is managed by NASA’sGoddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, and ispart of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise, a co-ordinated research effort to study the Earth as aglobal environmental system.
QuikTOMS is a free-flying spacecraft withits own orbit adjust subsystem. It will belaunched into an intermediate parking orbit,from which it will be raised by a series of orbit-adjust burns, to its operational Sun-synchronousorbit of 500 miles (800km). As soon as thespacecraft separates from the launch vehicle, apreprogrammed sequence of commands will beinitiated to deploy the solar arrays and transi-tion the spacecraft to safe mode.
The QuikTOMS Spacecraft during thermal vacuumtest preparations at Orbital's Environmental Test Facility in Germantown, Maryland.