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Teori Keperluan Asas Tumbuhan

Teori Keperluan Asas Tumbuhan

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Published by SHAFIQ SUBAHIR

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Published by: SHAFIQ SUBAHIR on Feb 17, 2011
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07/16/2013

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If you are planning for gardening, then you must know about what do plants need to survive.Water, soil, mineral nutrients, atmosphere, sunlight, optimum temperature and pH are the basic factors that every plant needs to grow.1.
 
Water
:
It is one of the most essential factors needed for the plant growth. Most plantsneed optimum quantity of water to grow. Each plant has its own water requirement.Some plants grow well in dry atmospheric conditions, while some need a consistentsupply of moisture.2.
 
Soil
:
Soil with an appropriate humidity and having a correct balance of nutrients andminerals is one of the important factors for the growth and survival of a plant. Thetype of soiland its composition required varies according to plant species.3.
 
Sunligh
t
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Light is a main source of energy for plants. Plants prepare their foodthrough the process of  photosynthesis, in which atmospheric carbon dioxide isconverted into simple sugars, using the energy in sunlight. Light can be provided usingnatural or artificial sources.4.
 
T
emperat
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Temperature of the soil as well as surrounding atmosphere greatlyinfluences the plant growth. A range of optimum temperature widely varies fromspecies to species. The most favorable atmospheric temperature for most of the plantspecies is between 65-85 degrees. Optimum temperature is necessary for several plant processes such asgermination, respiration, photosynthesis andflowering. 5.
 
A
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ere
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It includes relative humidity and carbon dioxide. Relative humidityranging from 40-60% is advantageous for most of the plants. Plants require carbondioxide for manufacturing the sugar through the process of photosynthesis. Oxygen isrequired for plant respiration and utilization of photosynthesis byproducts.6.
 
M
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They are known as µplant food¶. They come from the soil, getdissolved in the water and are absorbed through the plant roots. Thenutrients plantsneedto survive are classified into two groups such as macronutrients andmicronutrients. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are known as primary nutrients,while sulfur, calcium and magnesium are referred to as secondary nutrients. Copper, boron, cobalt, chloride, silicon, zinc, iron, molybdenum and manganese are called asmicronutrients.
 
Basic Plant Requirements
 1.
 
Anyone interested in gardening has one question in mind when choosing a new plant
:
 Will it thrive in my garden?2.
 
Many factors come into play to determine whether or not a plant will perform well for you. Each kind of plant has its own needs and requirements. Some plants, like thedandelion, are tolerant of a wide variety of conditions, while others, such as the pink ladyslipper orchid, have very exacting requirements. Before you spend the time,effort, and money attempting to grow a new plant in your garden, it is best to do someresearch to learn something about the conditions that the plant needs to grow properly.3.
 
Here is a brief description of some of the environmental parameters that influence plant growth
:
 
D
ay
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 4.
 
D
aylength is usually the most critical factor in regulating vegetative growth, flower initiation and development, and the induction of dormancy. Plants utilize daylength asa cue to promote their growth in spring and prepare them for the cold weather. Many plants require specific daylength conditions to initiate flowers.
L
igh
t
 5.
 
Light is the energy source for plants. Cloudy, rainy days or the shade cast by nearby plants and structures can significantly reduce the amount of light available. Shadeadapted plants cannot tolerate the bright light of full sun. Plants survive only wherethe amount is within a range they can tolerate.
T
emperat
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 6.
 
Plants grow best within an optimum range of temperatures; and the range may be widefor some species, narrow for others. Plants survive only where temperatures allowthem to carry on life-sustaining chemical reactions.
C
old
 7.
 
Plants differ in their ability to survive cold temperatures. Some tropical plants areinjured by temperatures below 60°F. Arctic species can tolerate temperatures well below zero. The ability of a plant to withstand cold is a function of the degree of dormancy present in the plant, its water status, and general health. Exposure to windand bright sunlight or rapidly changing temperatures can also compromise a plant'scold tolerance.
H
eat
 8.
 
Heat tolerance varies widely from species to species. Many plants that naturally growin arid tropical regions are naturally very heat tolerant, while subarctic plants andalpine plants show very little tolerance for heat. High night temperatures are often themost limiting factor for many plants.
Water
 9.
 
D
ifferent plants have different water needs. Some tolerate drought during the summer  but need winter rains. Others need a consistent supply of moisture to grow well.Careful attention to the need for supplemental water can help you select plants thatneed a minimum of irrigation to perform well in your garden. If you have poorly
 
drained, chronically wet soil, you can select lovely garden plants that naturally grow in bogs, fens, and other wet places.
p
H
 10.
 
The ability of plant roots to take up certain nutrients depends on the pH, which is ameasure of the acidity or alkalinity of your soil. Most plants grow best in soils thathave a pH near 7.0. Most ericaceous plants such as azaleas and blueberries need acidsoils with pH below 6.0 to grow well. Lime can be used to raise pH and materialscontaining sulfates such as aluminum sulfate and iron sulfate can be used to lower  pH. The solubility of many trace elements is controlled by pH, and only the solubleforms of these important micronutrients can be used by plants. Iron is not very solubleat high pH and iron chlorosis is often present in high-pH soils, even if they containabundant iron.
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Plants need certain things to grow
:
light, CO
2
, nutrients and trace elements. This should be nosurprise. What is generally not known is that plants need these things in fixed proportions(and unfortunately, the proportions vary with each type of plant). For example, if you have plenty of light, CO
2
, nutrients and most trace elements but not enough of one specific traceelement for a plant, the trace element in short supply will determine how well that plant growseven though other plants do fine. This explains why some plants are "easier" than others -their needs are typically supplied by tap water or other incidental sources. If the plants aren'table to utilize all the nutrients due to a shortage of one or more specific elements, the "excess"nutrients and light energy will be wasted or be used by algae.In general, there is no information available that says "this plant needs this much light, CO
2
,nutrients and trace elements". Aquarists can only determine "what works for me" by tedioustrial and error. Aquarists who follow the
D
upla "Optimum Aquarium" regimen try to ensurethat all the requirements of all the plants are met, but this leads to expensive and complexsystems.
LI
G
HT
 
Light is very important for photosynthesis since it supplies the energy required to drive thechemical reactions involved. The plants use light energy primarily in the blue and redspectrum but an aquarium will look better to people if full spectrum lighting is used.Light intensity and spectrum are more important than duration. You can't make up for dimmer  bulbs by leaving them on longer. 10-12 hours per day is usually sufficient. You need about1.5 to 3 watts per gallon, with deeper tanks requiring more intensity.It is important to balance light intensity with other nutrients. Intense lighting will be wasted if not enough CO
2
and nutrients are available to support the needs for photosynthesis.

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