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Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381. PMID: 12918380; DOI: 10.1023/A:1011620817764; www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;

Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381. PMID: 12918380; DOI: 10.1023/A:1011620817764; www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730;

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Published by Sergei Ostroumov
Danbio42.2001v379.E.pellets
http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol.379. Pellets of mollusks in biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. S.A.Ostroumov.
**
First measurements, first publication: New quantitative data on how aquatic mollusks drive fluxes of the chemical elements.
Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381.
scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730; PMID: 12918380;
DOI: 10.1023/A:1011620817764
A variant of the title, on some web sites:
Pellets of mollusks in biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al.
Danbio42.2001v379.E.pellets
http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065604; Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol.379. Pellets of mollusks in biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. S.A.Ostroumov.
**
First measurements, first publication: New quantitative data on how aquatic mollusks drive fluxes of the chemical elements.
Ostroumov S. A., M. P. Kolesnikov. Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, v.379, p.378-381.
scribd.com/doc/49065604; http://www.scribd.com/doc/45911730; PMID: 12918380;
DOI: 10.1023/A:1011620817764
A variant of the title, on some web sites:
Pellets of mollusks in biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al.

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Published by: Sergei Ostroumov on Feb 18, 2011
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 0012-4966/01/0708-$25.00 © 2001 MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica”0378
 
 
 Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 379, 2001, pp. 378–381. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 379, No. 3, 2001, pp. 426–429.Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Ostroumov, Kolesnikov.
 Aquatic invertebrates excrete pellets [1,2], whichconsist of products of incomplete digestion and pseud-ofeces. Different taxons are characterized by the fol-lowing values of food assimilability (in percents):Rotatoria, 48–80; Bryozoa, 41.6; Gastropoda, 42–82;Bivalvia, 40–47; Cladocera, 50.5–85.5; Copepoda, 30–88; Mysidacea, 84.2–95; Isopoda, 68; Amphipoda, 5.5–98; Decapoda, 38.7–96.1; larvae of Odonata, 20–97.2;Ephemeroptera, 41–72; Plecoptera, 9–73; Trichoptera,5–51; and Diptera, 1–31.4 [2]. When settling to the bot-tom of water bodies by gravity, pellets contribute tovertical fluxes of chemical elements through the eco-system level of the biospheric biogeochemical cycles orinto “biogenic migration of atoms in the biosphere” [3].The purpose of this study was to estimate the capac-ity of mollusk pellets for contributing into the verticaltransfer of chemical elements through an aquatic eco-system, using
 Limnaea stagnalis
 (L.) and bivalves(Unionidae) as examples.The mollusks
 L. stagnalis
 were collected in June ina pond in the floodplain of the upper Moskva River andwere kept afterwards as described in [4]. Bivalve mol-lusks (Unionidae) collected from the partly silted sandbottom of the Moskva River upstream of the town of Zelinograd represented a sample from a natural benthiccommunity dominated by
Unio tumidus
 and
U. pic-torum
 (63.21 and 27.36%, respectively, of the overallnumber of specimens in the sample). The proportionsof 
Crassiana crassa
 and
 Anodonta cygnea
 were lower(7.55 and 1.89%, respectively). The bivalves sampledfrom the natural ecosystem (the total biomass was3302 g wet weight, including the shells; the averageweight of one mollusk was 21.9 g), where they filterednatural seston, were incubated for 24 h in a wide flask containing settled tap water to obtain the pellet precip-itate, which was afterwards resuspended in a 300-mlglass cylinder. The sand fraction, which precipitatedwithin 15 s (fraction 1), was separated from the remain-ing suspension of the pellet material per se. The latterwas transferred into another glass cylinder. From thissuspension, pellets precipitated within 3 h (fraction 2);this precipitate was separated by means of decanting thesupernatant. The dry weight of fraction 2 was 1434 mg.To determine the carbon content in the vegetativematerial and in pellets, they were oxidized by 10%
 K
 
2
 Cr 
 
2
 O
 
7
 in the presence of a mixture of concentrated
 H
 
2
 SO
 
4
 and
H
 
3
 PO
 
4
 [5]; the
CO
 
2
 formed was trapped by0.5 M NaOH, and the remaining alkaline was titeredwith hydrochloric acid. The photometric method wasalso used; the optic density of the solution was mea-sured at a wavelength of 590 nm after oxidation of thematerial with bichromate. The amount of organic nitro-gen was measured using a Kjeltec Auto 1030 Analyzer(Tecator, Sweden) by the Kjeldahl method after miner-alization with a mixture of 
H
 
2
 SO
 
4
 and
H
 
2
 O
 
2
 . Phospho-rus was assayed using phosphoromolybdenum blue(PMB) in a working solution containing ions of ortho-phosphate and orthosilicic acid in 15.0 ml of 
1 N H
 
2
 SO
 
4
 [6]. The sum of organogenic and soluble (mineral) sili-con was determined using the modified silicomolybde-num blue method without preliminary ashing of thevegetative material [6]. Aluminum was determined inan aliquot of 
HNO
 
3
 hydrolyzate (1.5–2.5 ml) neutral-ized with ammonium and dissolved in water to a finalvolume of 25.0 ml; afterwards, 2.0 ml of 1% ascorbicacid were added and pH 2.5 was obtained. Then, 0.04%aquatic solution of eriochromcyanogen R (pH 2.5) and5.0 ml of 
CH
 
3
 COONH
 
4
 (50% solution, pH 7.0) wereadded. After addition of water to obtain a final volumeof 50.0 ml, the optical density was measured at 535 nm.Chemical analysis is described in detail elsewhere [4, 6].The element composition of 
 L. stagnalis
 pelletsafter the mollusks were fed on the leaves of 
 Nuphar lutea
 Smith and
Taraxacum officinale
 Wigg is shown inTable 1. The compositions of 
 L. stagnalis
 pellets weresimilar in both cases. The contents of N and P wereslightly higher in the pellets of 
 L. stagnalis
 than in thephytomass of 
 N. lutea
 , whereas the content of Si wasnoticeably higher than that in the phytomass of bothplant species that served as a food for the mollusks. Pel-lets of the bivalves were similar in composition to those
 GENERAL BIOLOGY
 Pellets of Some Mollusks in the Biogeochemical Flowsof C, N, P, Si, and Al
 S. A. Ostroumov and M. P. Kolesnikov
 Presented by Academician M.E. Vinogradov February 1, 2001Received February 1, 2001
  Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow,119899 Russia Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 33, Moscow, 117071 Russia
 
 DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
 
Vol. 379
 
2001
 PELLETS OF SOME MOLLUSKS379
 of 
 L. stagnalis
 . Note that pellets of bivalves were char-acterized by a somewhat higher ash content and lowersilicon content.Based on data on
 L. stagnalis
 nutrition in a micro-cosm, it was calculated that 143.6 to 153.2 mg of pellets(dry weight) were formed per 1 g of consumed plant bio-mass, and carbon accounts for as much as 67.5 to 69.7%of this amount (from 96.9 to 106.8 mg) (Table 2). It isalso interesting that pellet formation occurred at a sim-ilar rate when the mollusks were fed on the phytomassof different plant species.
 Table 1.
 Element composition of pellets (% of dry weight) formed by the mollusk 
 L
 .
stagnalis
 feeding on the leaves of 
  N. lutea
 and
T. officinale
 Element
  N. luteaT. officinale
 leavespelletsleavespelletsC69.467.5N2.112.192.832.572.89P0.340.390.50.440.48Si0.810.851.731.151.87Al0.0430.0470.0540.0590.0760.094The sum of ash elements(ash content)4.175.975.43
 Note:The element composition of leaves (in percents of the leaf dry weight) is shown for comparison.
 Table 2.
 Formation of pellets by the mollusk 
 L
 .
stagnalis
 feeding on the leaves of various plant speciesParameter
 N. lutea
 
T. officinale
 Wet weight of the biomass consumed, g15.899.66Dry weight of the pellets formed, mg24341387Dry weight of the pellets formed per 1 g of wet weight of the leaf mass153.2143.6Number of mollusks3055Incubation time, h30948
 Note:The incubation conditions when
 N. lutea
was used as food: 309 h, 22–24
 °
 C, eight flasks; the incubation conditions when
T. officinale
 was used as food: 48 h, 22–23
 °
 C, nine flasks.
 Table 3.
 Transfer of matter and chemical elements (mg) with pellets of bivalves (a sample from a natural community of Unionidae) per unit biomass of mollusks and per unit area of the ecosystem from which the mollusks were collectedPellets and chemical elements(% of dry weight)mg/1 kg of mollusk biomass(wet weight including shells)mg/1 m
 
2
 of the ecosystemper day120 daysper day 120 daysPellets (total dry weight, mg)434.2852114717.0086040C279.243509461.0355324N11.86142319.572349P1.692032.80336Si4.955948.17981Al0.31370.5161The sum of ash elements (ash content), 7.1130.88370550.986117
 Note:Pellets (fraction 2) were obtained from mollusks (total biomass, 3302 g of wet weight with shells) collected from the area of 2 m
 
2
 in August in the Moskva River. The element composition of pellets (% of dry weight) was as follows: C, 64.3; N, 2.73; P, 0.39;Si, 1.14; Al, 0.071.
 
 380
 DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
 
Vol. 379
 
2001
 OSTROUMOV, KOLESNIKOV
 The data shown in Tables 3 and 4 can be used to cal-culate both specific rates of element transfer (per 1 g of mollusk biomass) and the magnitude of the transfer(per unit area of the ecosystem). In
 L. stagnalis
 , thespecific rate of matter transfer (dry weight of pellets per1 g of mollusk biomass) (Table 4) was significantlyhigher than in bivalve mollusks (Table 3). However, themagnitudes of transfer (as calculated per unit area of the ecosystem) differed less, because the biomass den-sity of bivalves (per 1 m
 
2
 ) was significantly higher thanthat of 
 L. stagnalis.
 However, this is only a conservativeestimate, because, in natural ecosystems, the mollusk biomass density considerably varies, and, hence, thematter transfer also varies. Therefore, we regard theseestimates with caution and do not extrapolate them toother ecosystems or other areas of the same ecosystemthat differ in the mollusk population density.In previous experiments with microcosms, we stud-ied the effect of the surfactant tetradecyltrimethylam-monium bromide (TDTMA) on the trophic activity of 
  L. stagnalis
 , which was measured from the consump-tion of leaf phytomass for three days of incubation [4].At the surfactant concentration of 2 mg/l, the feedingrate decreased with time, as well as the pellet excretionby the mollusks. The inhibition of trophic activityranged from 27.9 to 70.9%, depending on time. Underthe exposure to TDTMA, formation and total accumu-lation of pellets on the bottom per unit biomass of mol-lusks was only 58.3% of the control value [4]. In simi-lar experiments, the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate(SDS) also inhibited the trophic activity of 
 L. stagnalis
 feeding on
T. officinale
 biomass during 17 h. Thedegree of inhibition was 52.2 and 44.9% at SDS con-centrations of 1 and 2 mg/l, respectively. Similarly, thesynthetic detergent Tyde-Lemon inhibited the trophicactivity of 
 L. stagnalis
 feeding on the same plant spe-cies. During 23 h of incubation, the degree of inhibitionwas 36% at the detergent concentration of 75 mg/l.Phytomass consumption was estimated per unit biomassof the mollusks (per 1 g of wet weight of 
 L. stagnalis
 ).Thus, trophic activity of molluscs and the relatedtransfer of matter and energy along the trophic chain(phytomass–phytophage–excreted pellets) are inhib-ited by surfactants. These results, as well as other data[7–12], indicate one more potential anthropogenic haz-ard to biogeochemical flows in the biosphere.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe are grateful to V.D. Fedorov, A.F. Alimov,V.V. Malakhov, E.A. Kuznetsov, M. V. Chertoprud, andother researchers at the Moscow State University andRussian Academy of Sciences for their help and usefulcomments on this study.The work of S.A. Ostroumov was supported by theOpen Society Support Foundation (RSS grantno. 1306/1999).RFERENCES
 1.Alimov, A.F.,
Funktsional’naya ekologiya presnovod-nykh dvustvorchatykh mollyuskov
 (Functional Ecologyof Fresh-Water Bivalve Mollusks), Leningrad: Nauka,1981.2.Monakov, A.V.,
Pitanie presnovodnykh bespozvonoch-nykh
 (Feeding of Freshwater Invertebrates), Moscow,1998.3.Vernadskii, V.I.,
Khimicheskoe stroenie biosfery Zemli iee okruzheniya
 (Chemical Structure of the Biosphere of the Earth and Its Surroundings), Moscow: Nauka, 1965.4.Ostroumov, S.A. and Kolesnikov, M.P.,
 Dokl. Akad. Nauk 
 , 2000, vol. 373, no. 2, pp. 278–280.
 Table 4.
Chemical elements (mg) with pellets of the mollusk 
 L. stagnalis
 per unit biomass of mollusks and per unit area of the ecosystem from which the mollusks were collectedPellets and chemical elements, % of dry weightmg/1 kg of mollusk biomass(wet weight with shells)mg/1 m
 
2
 of the ecosystemper day 120 daysper day120 daysPellets (total dry weight, mg)3372.3404676178.4221410C2351.8282221124.4314931N95.44114525.05606P6.8620230.89107Si58.3470013.09370Al2.022430.1113The sum of ash elements (ash content), 5.97201.332416010.651278
 Note:Pellets from mollusks (total biomass, 158.72 g of wet weight with shells) were collected from an area of 3 m
 
2
 in August in a pondin the floodplain of the upper Moskva River. The element composition of pellets (% of dry weight) was as follows: C, 69.74; N, 2.83;P, 0.5; Si, 1.73; Al, 0.06.

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Online free. Environmental sciences, ecology, biology: scientific results obtained at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, examples: A list of publications of a Fulbright Awardee, with sites of the full texts, selected: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/06/onl... Environmental sciences, ecology, biology: scientific results obtained at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University: publications, aquatic ecosystems, water quality etc.: sites of the full texts, selected: http://www.scribd.com/doc/93423426
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