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Satellite Technology Utilization for Rural and Urban India

Satellite Technology Utilization for Rural and Urban India



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Published by Dr. Surendra Pal
Use of satellites for rural india
Use of satellites for rural india

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Published by: Dr. Surendra Pal on Aug 20, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Satellite technology utilization for Rural and Urban India
S. Pal*
& V. S. Rao**
Key words: satellite communication, satellite technology for rural India, remotesensing.
Communication capabilities in various forms provided by the modern spacecraft are bridging the gap between modernized cities and backward rural villages. The remotesensing satellites are equally helping rural India by providing useful information toincrease farm yield, fish catching and also helping to save lot of lives by disaster warning and weather forecasting. This paper describes the utilization of the satellitetechnology in various forms for Indian masses particularly rural India..
The society having a better and quicker means of communications is considered to be anadvanced and forward looking society.
Most of our country’s population in the past wasnot served by the telephone and television networks that so greatly influence citiesand western societies.
There is a great influence of present day fast evolving technologies particularly the digital techniques on the development of the society. It includes present daycomputers and Satellite Communication. Present day technological tools support andcomplement each other to complete the total communication scenario.
Satellites are perceived largely as a means to reach isolated places. Because of the broadcastingnature of the satellites, a signal sent up to the satellite comes down everywhere over awide area, thus providing connectivity to the inaccessible parts of the country.Satellites bring the television to the homes even in remote villages. Television is anextremely powerful medium for education, literacy rate in rural areas can be improvedthrough tele-education services based on satellite technology. Being a tropicalcountry with long coast line, natural disasters often knock at the country and the rural people are often the victims. Terrestrial links and transport systems cripple veryoften. Satellites come to the rescue in such events for disaster management, whichrequires real time decision making and action.The introduction of space communication and the present era of informationtechnology has changed the current scenario and we have seen the third technologicalrevolution (information + communication = Information Technology) in the lastdecade of the last century. The present era is called the IT era. The technologicalevolutions which have taken place in the last century are simply beyond one'simagination. Many technological reversals have been seen, like the telephone whichshould have been on the wired network has become wireless while the TV which waswireless, works on cable.
* Out Standing Scientist/ Program Director, SATNAV, Deputy Director, ISRO Satellite Centre, Air  port Road, Bangalore-560 017, India. (pal_surendra@hotmail.com)** Group Head, Communication Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre,Air port Road, Bangalore-560 017, India. (vsrao@isac.gov.in)
Many individual spheres of working have become almost universal, like education hascome to the drawing room from school and colleges, sectors like banking, medicines,hospitals etc which were location specific are available on net.With the development of space technology, time and distance have lost their conventional meaning, thereby permitting men and women all over the world to sharetheir experiences, frustrations and successes with great ease. Sophisticated andexpensive medical treatment has been made reachable to those underprivilegedsociety living in inaccessible parts of India through telemedicine project conceivedwith satellite technology. In a nutshell, the present day world has become a globalvillage and thereby we are in a shrinking globe and expanding universe. There istremendous convergence and fusion of communications, computers and associatedtechnology in the present era. Space communication technology takes all thistechnological advancement to the rural areas which are backbone of Indiandemocracy.
As we become increasingly networked, our world will grow smaller and bigger simultaneously. Communication is at the root of the progress of every society.Society is often described as essentially people in communication.
The conventional communication tools are:
Telegraphy using copper wire line
Telephony using copper wire line
New papers, books, etc.
Means of Transport
All these have undergone tremendous changes and the new technologies emerged are
Mobile Satellite Telephone - Personal Communication Systems
INFOSAT (information satellite)
A major shift from analogue to digital domain
An increase in the value of software as opposed to hardware content
Extension of optical technology towards the local loop coupled with increasing use of optical switches and optical processing
Use of wireless in access technology - New access & Modulation codes
Ultra broad band services
Extensive use of spread spectrum and code division multiple access techniques.Services planned / in existence are:
Virtual Private Networks
PCS - Personal Communication Services
Call Collect Services
Desk top Video conferencing
Card Phone Services
Video Telephone
Interactive Video & Video on demand
Multimedia transmission / reception
Global positioning/timing system along with SATNAV
Digital TV, Direct TV to HomeMOST IMPORTANT - THE INTERNET & WORLD WIDE WEBAll these need either terrestrial or satellite channels to serve the user. The present day scenariocan be best summarized by fig-1. Here space communication becomes an important toolirrespective of the large growth in terrestrial communication networks particularly when thetechnology is to be taken to rural India.Space Communication is provided by satellites in various orbits. Satellites have been put into all these orbits and successful communication links have been established. It will be amatter of large discussion if one starts explaining the pros & cons of the orbits & their satellites.
Satellite communication started with fixed services and expanded to greatest potential applications in the mobile and broad cast services. Satellites have innateadvantage that make them an attractive alternative or complement to terrestrial broadband circuits. Satellite communication provides reliable means of providinginformation or monitoring inaccessible areas even in the case of severe cyclones anddisasters and when the entire terrestrial network fails. The conventional services provided by satellites are: Telephony/TV Broadcasting/Data reception anddistribution/Direct Television broadcasting/Disaster warning/Continuous weather monitoring/Spacecraft Vehicle Tracking and Commanding/ Inter satellite links/ Mail/Internet/Data mining, Position (GPS) and time determination / Moving motor vehicletracking etc.3
Cable TVTelevisionDVDVideoCameraPrinterPDADesktop PCCellularTelephoneFaxPagerInternetCellularInternet TVVideo onDemandHome BankingInternetTelephony
Network Computing
VideoconferencingSmart CardSpaceWorldWideWebTerrestrialCredit CardA FUTURE COMMUNICATION SCENARIO

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