Dong Soo Kim and Sang Chun Lee : International Journal of the KSPE, Vol. 3, No. 1.
a high working pressure and a high external load.Meanwhile, many studies have been conducted onthe pneumatic cushioning cylinder having an orifice fluidresistance structure and a multiple orifice cushion sleeveinstalled therein; Kagawa
conducted a study oncharacteristics of temperature variation in the meter-outcontrol system. Wang
et al. conducted a studyon simulation relating to characteristics of the pneumaticsystem. Parker
conducted a study on calculation of theimpact force of the shock absorber fixed to the pneumaticcylinder. In addition, Otis
, Qiao Yun
, et al. ever conductedstudies on the cylinder system, but they have neverconducted an in-depth study on the cushion area thereof.Therefore, this study is to identify any change inthe cushion pressure and the cushion stroke time of thecushion area through the experiment to be conductedon the meter-in control system and the meter-out controlsystem respectively as the supply pressure and theexternal load are being varied, wherein only the meter-incontrol system and the meter-out control system are tobe used respectively as the velocity control method andonly the cylinder in a vertical downward motion is tobe the experimental one in order to interpret any changein the dynamic behavioral characteristics of thecushioning cylinder having a multiple orifice cushionsleeve installed therein, which has been researched anddeveloped by Kim, et al.
.A pressure sensor, a force sensor, a position sensor,a velocity sensor and an acceleration sensor were fixedto the cylinder, the experimental subject in order tomeasure its physical quantity. Data measurement wasmade by opening and closing valves through the digitalinput/output ports of the analog-digital converter by thecomputer keyboard, and at this time, 2,000 data samplesper second per one channel were collected by using theanalog-digital converter to ensure accuracy of theexperiment. As a result, it has been identified that anychange in the cushioning characteristics was affected bythe external load, and further that the system using themeter-out control was stable and any variation in thevelocity, the acceleration and the cushion pressure of the cushion area was unstable in the system using themeter-in control.
2. Experimental Apparatus and Method2.1 Experimental Apparatus
Fig. 1 is a schematic of the internal structure of the pneumatic cushioning cylinder, the experimentalsubject in this study. Wherein, P1 and T1 representrespectively the air pressure and the air temperature inthe supply side and the exhaust side. Pc1 and Pc2represent the cushion pressure. Fig. 2 is a photographof the multiple orifice cushion sleeve installed inside thecushioning cylinder. And, Fig. 3 is a schematic of theexperimental apparatus. Table 1 shows specifications of the cylinder, the experimental subject, wherein the 10(5) mm diameter of the flow control valve means thediameter of the supplying pipe or the exhaust pipe inthe meter-in control circuit or the meter-out controlcircuit. That is to say, in the meter-in circuit, the diameterof the supplying pipe is 5 mm and that of the exhaustpipe is 10 mm in the meter-in circuit, while vice versain the meter-out circuit. Table 2 shows specificationsof the measuring equipments which are components theexperimental apparatus.The experimental apparatus used in this study largelycomprised the test mechanism section, the compressedair supplying section, the data measuring system usingvarious sensors and the compressed air supply controlsystem.As shown in Fig. 3, the test mechanism section wasdesigned and manufactured so that the external load couldbe variably mounted over the top part of the cylinder,the test subject, having the cushioning device installedtherein, and the linear bearing was used to minimizefriction therein. A position sensor, a velocity sensor andan acceleration sensor, a thermocouple for measuringtemperature, a strain gauge-type pressure sensor, atension/compression load cell and a turbine-type flowmeter for measuring a flow rate were installed in variouselements of the test subject. The test mechanism wasdesigned so that it could be adjusted horizontally,vertically and to any wanted angle.The compressed air supply section comprised anair compressor, a lubricating device, an impurity removaland pressure adjusting device, a flow control valve, apressure control valve, a direction control valve, tubesand fittings. The data acquisition and control systemcomprised a computer, a data measurement and controlcard and a printer, and Borland C++ was used therein.