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London Wikipedia

London Wikipedia

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Published by assalamm

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Published by: assalamm on Feb 19, 2011
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LondonFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. For other uses, seeLondon (disambiguation).Page semi-protectedLondonFrom upper left: City of London, Tower Bridge and London Eye, Houses of ParliamentLondon region in the United KingdomCoordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″WCoordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″WSovereign state United KingdomConstituent country EnglandRegion LondonCeremonial counties City and Greater LondonDistricts City and 32 boroughsSettled by Romans as Londinium c. AD 43Headquarters City HallGovernment- Regional authority Greater London Authority- Regional assembly London Assembly- Mayor of London Boris Johnson- UK Parliament- London Assembly- European Parliament 74 constituencies14 constituenciesLondon constituencyArea- London 607 sq mi (1,572.1 km2)Elevation[1] 79 ft (24 m)Population (July 2007 est.)[2][3][4]- London 7,556,900- Density 12,450/sq mi (4,807/km2)- Urban 8,278,251- Metro 12,300,000 to 13,945,000- Demonym Londoner - Ethnicity(June 2007 estimates)[5]Ethnic groups[show]Time zone GMT (UTC0)- Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)Postcode areas E, EC, N, NW, SE, SW, W, WC, BR, CR, DA, EN, HA, IG, KT,RM, SM, TN, TW, UBArea code(s) 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992Website london.gov.uk London (play /l
ˈ
ʌ
ndən/) is the capital of England and the United Kingdom, the largestmetropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European
 
Union by most measures.[note 1] London has been a major settlement for two millennia,its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who called it Londinium.[6]London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its square-mile mediaeval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, the name London has also referred to themetropolis developed around this core.[7] The bulk of this conurbation forms the Londonregion[8] and the Greater London administrative area,[9][note 2] governed by the electedMayor of London and the London Assembly.[10]London is a leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, education,entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research anddevelopment, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence.[11] It is theworld's largest financial centre alongside New York,[12][13][14] has the largest cityGDP in Europe[15] and is home to the headquarters of more than 100 of Europe's 500largest companies.[16] It is the most visited city in the world.[17] London's fiveinternational airports make its airspace the busiest of any urban centre worldwide[18] andLondon Heathrow is the world's busiest airport by number of international passengers.[19] London's 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher educationinstitutions in Europe.[20] In 2012 London will become the first city to host the Summer Olympics three times.[21]London has a diverse range of peoples, cultures and religions, and more than 300languages are spoken within its boundaries.[22] In July 2007 it had an official populationof 7,556,900 within the boundaries of Greater London,[23] making it the most populousmunicipality in the European Union.[24] The Greater London Urban Area is the secondlargest in the EU with a population of 8,278,251,[2] while London's metropolitan area isthe largest in the EU with an estimated total population of between 12 million[3] and 14million.[4]London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the sitecomprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey and St. Margaret's Church;and the historic settlement of Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory marks theGreenwich Meridian (0° longitude) and GMT).[25] Other famous landmarks includeBuckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, 30 St Mary Axe ("TheGherkin"), St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge and Trafalgar Square. London is home tonumerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutionsincluding the British Museum, National Gallery, British Library, Wimbledon and 40theatres.[26] London's Chinatown is the largest in Europe.[27] The London Undergroundnetwork is the oldest underground railway network in the world[28] and the mostextensive after the Shanghai Metro.[29]Contents[hide]1 History1.1 Toponomy1.2 Prehistory and antiquity1.3 Middle Ages
 
1.4 Early modern1.5 Late modern and contemporary2 Government2.1 Local government2.2 National government3 Geography3.1 Scope3.2 Status3.3 Topography3.4 Climate3.5 Districts3.6 Architecture3.7 Parks and gardens4 Demography4.1 Ethnic groups4.2 Religion5 Economy6 Transport6.1 Railways6.2 Buses and trams6.3 Air 6.4 Roads6.5 Cycles7 Education7.1 Tertiary education7.2 Primary and secondary education8 Culture8.1 Accent8.2 Leisure and entertainment8.3 Literature, film and television8.4 Museums and art galleries8.5 Music9 Sports10 Twin cities11 See also12 Notes13 References13.1 Bibliography14 External linksHistoryMain article: History of LondonToponomyThe name London may derive from the River Thames

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