arbitrary bus numbered k. The four variablesare real and reactive power injection, P
, respectively, and voltage magnitude andangle, |V
, respectively. From this perspective, there are three basic types of buses. We refer to the first two types usingterminology that remind us of the knownvariables.
: For type PV buses, we know P
| but not Q
. These busesfall under the category of
because of the ability tospecify (and therefore to know) thevoltage magnitude of this bus. Mostgenerator buses fall into this category,independent of whether it also has load;exceptions are
buses that have reactive power injection at either the generator’s upper limit (Q
) or at its lower limit (Q
the system swing bus (we further describe the swing bus below).