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PowerFlow3

PowerFlow3

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Published by Rajmohan

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Published by: Rajmohan on Feb 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/11/2012

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PowerFlow31.0Introduction
We define and discuss some terminologynecessary for understanding the power flow problem and solution procedure.
2.0Classification of buses
Although it is physically appealing tocategorize buses based on thegeneration/load mix connected to it, we needto be more precise in order to analyticallyformulate the power flow problem. Fo proper analytical formulation, it isappropriate to categorize the busesaccording to what information is knownabout them before we solve the power flow problem.For each bus, there are four possiblevariables that characterize the buseselectrical condition. Let us consider an
1
 
arbitrary bus numbered k. The four variablesare real and reactive power injection, P
andQ
, respectively, and voltage magnitude andangle, |V
| and
θ
, respectively. From this perspective, there are three basic types of  buses. We refer to the first two types usingterminology that remind us of the knownvariables.
 PV Buses
: For type PV buses, we know P
and |V
| but not Q
or 
θ
. These busesfall under the category o
voltage-controlled buses
because of the ability tospecify (and therefore to know) thevoltage magnitude of this bus. Mostgenerator buses fall into this category,independent of whether it also has load;exceptions are
1.
 buses that have reactive poweinjection at either the generator’s upper limit (Q
max
) or at its lower limit (Q
min
),and
2.
the system swing bus (we furthedescribe the swing bus below).
2
 
There are also special cases where anon-generator bus (i.e., either a bus withload or a bus with neither generation or load) may be classified as type PV, andsome examples of these special cases are buses having switched shunt capacitorsor static var compensation systems(SVCs). In the example that we workedon previously, illustrated below foconvenience, buses B2 and B3 are typePV.Fig. 1
3

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