Asymptomatic -as long as stone remains attached to renal papillae
Hematuria -may be isolated or associated with pain
Obstruction -typically produce pain from acute obstruction anywherefrom ureteropelvic to ureterovesical junction called
which gradually increases severity over 30 mins to a plateau.
Stone passage -pain begins at flank then moves downward and laterallyalong anterior abdomen to loin, testis or vulva.Stone lodged in ureterovesical junctionpresent as frequency, urgency or dysuriamistaken as UTI.
Staghorn calcuili -can be struvite, cystine or uric acid stones growntoo large, usually in the presence of urease + organisms
Nephrocalcinosis -multiple papillary calcifications commonly seen inRTA and medullary sponge kidneys.
Sludge -precipitate plug of uric acid or cystine crystals
Infection ±flank pain, fever, chills, nausea/vomiting,hypogastric pain