Chapter 2 – Cell structure and cell organization
2.1 Cell Structure and Function
The cell is the basic unit of all organisms. It is made up of a
that encloses the
Contained within the cytoplasm are not only the
, whose specificfunctions help the cell perform a range of activities.
While plant and animal cells are similar, the plant cell has, in addition to the cell membrane,another boundary that separates it from its external environment. This is called the
As most plant cells carry out photosynthesis - the synthesis of organic substances - theycontain
In plant cells,
also tend to be larger in size and smaller in number than those found inanimal cells.
Onion Skin Cell
Notes: when you draw the onion epidermal cells, remember to draw double line layer to show the cellwall. When you label the cell membrane, you should point to inner line which is next to thecytoplasm. The vacuole is not clearly seen in the above picture. The onion epidermal cells arenormally stained with iodine. The iodine turns the starch into blue black colour.
Cheek Squamous Epithelial Cells
Cellular components of animal and plant cells
(you may also refer to thephotocopied pocket note No.1)CellularcomponentStructure / characteristicsFunctionCellmembrane-Made of proteins andphospholipids-Semi-permeable-Encloses cell contents-Separates content of cell fromoutside environment1Magnified view (400x). Thecells are stained withmethylene blue. Thenucleus and cellmembrane are clearlyvisible. These cells hasirregular shape, unlike therectangular onion cells.Chromatin thatare condensedand appearingaschromosomeswhich aregetting ready The double lineshows thestructure of cell The inner linenext tocytoplasm The little roundstructure showsthe nucleus.