Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
deepanker

deepanker

Ratings: (0)|Views: 12|Likes:
Published by Deepanker Garg

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Deepanker Garg on Feb 20, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/20/2011

pdf

text

original

 
Chemical reactions can be divided into several classes each having similar characteristics. Thesedifferent types of reactions will be discussed in greater detail throughout the book. You will findthat almost every reaction you see can fall into one of these categories, so make sure that youunderstand them.
Contents
[hide]
y
 
1
Synthesis Reactions 
y
 
2
Decomposition Reactions 
y
 
3
Single Replacement Reactions 
y
 
4
Double Replacement Reactions 
o
 
4
.
1
Precipitation 
o
 
4
.
2
Acid-Base Neutralization 
y
 
5
Combustion 
y
 
6
Organic Reactions 
y
 
7
Redox 
 
Sy
nthesis Reactions
Helpful Hint!
 
Synthesis reactions always yield one product.Reversing a synthesis reaction will give you a
decomposition reaction
.
The general form of a synthesis reaction is A + B  AB. Synthesis reactions "put thingstogether".This is the most well-known example of a synthesisreaction²the formation of water via the fusion ohydrogen gas and oxygen gas.Another example of a synthesis reaction is the formationof sodium chloride (table salt).Because of the very high reactivities of sodium metal and chlorine gas, this reaction releases atremendous amount of heat and light energy. Recall that atoms release energy as they becomestable, and consider the octet rule when determining why this reaction is so favorable.
 
[
edit] Decomposition Reactions
These are the opposite of synthesis reactions, with the format AB  A + B. Decompositionreactions "take things apart". Just as synthesis reactions can only form one product,decomposition reactions can only start with one reactant. Compounds that are unstable willdecompose quickly without outside assistance.One example is the electrolysis of water (passingwater through electrical current) to form hydrogengas and oxygen gas.Hydrogen peroxide slowly decomposes into water and oxygen because it is somewhat unstable. The process is sped up by the energy from light, sohydrogen peroxide is stored in dark containers toslow down the decomposition.Carbonic acid is the carbonation that is dissolved insoda. It decomposes into carbon dioxide and water,which is why an opened drink will lose its fizz.Decomposition, aside from happening spontaneously in unstablecompounds, occurs under three conditions: thermal, electrolytic, andcatalytic.
Th
ermal decomposition
occurs when a substance is heated.
 Electrolytic decomposition
, as shown above, is the result of an electriccurrent.
Catalytic decomposition
happens because a catalyst breaksapart a substance.
[
edit]
S
ingle Replacement Reactions
Single replacement reactions, also called single displacement, swap one component with another,in the format AB + C  AC + B.Adding hydrochloric acid to zinc will cause a gas to bubble out:
[
edit] Double Replacement Reactions
In these reactions, two compounds swap components, in the format AB + CD  AD + CB.
[
edit] Precipitation
 
 
Wikipediahas relatedinformation at
 Precipitation (chemistry)
 
 
A precipitation reaction occurs when an
ionic
substance comes out of solution and forms aninsoluble (or slightly soluble) solid. The solid which comes out of solution is called a
precipitate
. This can occur when two soluble salts (ionic compounds) are mixed and form aninsoluble one²the precipitate.Anexampleis leadnitratemixedwith potassiumiodide,whichforms a brightyellow precipitateof leadiodide. Note thatthe leadiodide isformed asa solid.The previousequationis writteninmolecular form,which isnot the best wayof describingthe

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->