Manacad or in the southern edge of Chalai market, or Vallakadavu) .In 1985 government ordered closure of the dump
Table 4: Structure of MSW-T, 2001 (after Panicker, 2001)TypeChala, gm; %Manakad, gm; %Palayam; gm; %Average: gm; %Paper76.0 ; 0.70 400.0; 10.8300.0; 5.00258.6; 5.5Dry leaves116.0;1.12100.0; 56.83700.0; 61.41972.0;39.76Green leaves445.0; 4.3NilNil148.3; 1.4Rotten vegetable9700.0;92.8Nil87.0; 1.43262.3; 31.4Cotton+clothes27.0; 0.3 32.0; 0.917.0; 0.325.3; 0.5Coir stuff33.0; 0.3NilNil11.0; 0.1Husk, shell n.d560.0; 15.2 1300.0; 21.6620.0; 12.26Wood30.0; 0.3NilNil10.0; 0.1Meatstall waste Nil200.0; 5.4350.0; 5.8183.33; 3.73Total 10427.0; 99.83292.0; 89.15754.0; 95.56490.89; 94.78
site at Vallakkadavu, following a request by the AAI for in order to avoid flight delays, damages and losseswarranted by the rising bird hits on aircraft engines while flying low during landing or takeoff. However, withthe introduction and proliferation of plastic (chiefly as packaging fabric and carry bags), to a certain extentrubber (in the form of footwear) etc. the profile of the city waste transformed quickly to the dislike of thefarmers –the one time captive clientele.With the change of profile of the city waste, consequent rejection by farming community and jump in thevolumes and quantities of waste, the need for newer interventions like a centralized and scientific wasteprocessing program, became acutely inescapable and compelling. As a result, an aerobic compostingtechnology or ‘Excel Technology’ based waste processing plant was commissioned in July, 2000 in theChovallur ward of Vilappilasala Grama Panchayath.Prasad (2007) used the GIS tool kit to isolate suitable landfill sites adjacent to the VPP, using severalcriteria. Ambat (2002) examined the societal attitude towards solid waste management especially in respectof Thiruvananthapuram. Maya et al, (2000) reported on the quanta and structure of MSW in the districts of Kottayam, Alappuzha and Ernakulam. The MSW of Thiruvananthapuram corporation area was inquired intoby Sreebha et al. (2005) while Krishnakumar et al (2005) attempted a portrayal of MSW of the state.
Vilappilsala Processing Plant (VPP)
The VPP built on a BOT basis at Chovallur ward of Vilappil VP, is one of the early initiatives in Kerala inarea of MSW management by aerobic composting process. As originally conceived, the citizen takes un-segregated household waste to a street side dump site to be trucked away to one of the transfer stations(viz., Palayam, Chala or Manacad, en route to the VPP) without a real time transport to the processing plantdue to reasons like truck repairs or breakdowns, want of a full load of waste or special holidays andSundays, resulting in a degree of putrefaction of waste. When such waste reaches the windrows of VPP for composting, it releases a leachate (especially in the wet seasons due to an over dose of rain water spray)that escapes into a tributary of Karaman Ar. and foul smelling gases, resulted in stiff objections andresistance by local residents in the neighborhood of the VPP and occasionally en route to the plant.
The VPP erected in the Chovallur ward (ref. SOI topo-sheet 58H/11),of Vilappil Grama Panchayath (VGP)and in a left-bank sub-basin of Karamana Ar. in the Trivandrum Dist., is approximatrely 15.0 km to the NE of Trivandrum city and has the distinction of being the home of first domestic solid waste treatment plant in thestate. This tract has typical midland (7.5-75.0 m amsl.) configuration of Kerala, viz., set of NW-SE trendingnarrow-valley-wide-ridge mosaic and lower relative relief. Narrow valley floor has a relatively thick fill of alluvium, drained by a lower order stream (say 4
of order or lower), while the ridges have steeper northerlyslopes than south facing ones and are of short to medium length and tend to have a thick cover of lateritewith occasional outcrops of the crystalline basement rocks on the ridge-tops or on slopes. This tract enjoys atropical to sub-tropical climate with temperatures in the range of 22 – 30 deg.C., and an average annual rainfall of 250 cm.- a combined contribution by the SW and NE monsoons. Land-use-wise coconut trees areplanted commonly along the toe of the slopes and/or floor of the valleys, while rubber plantations sprawlacross the slopes as well as the ridge tops.
The Treatment Plant
The treatment-plant, housed in a large polygonal shed with a roof of very gentle slope (like an open-upright-umbrella) and attached factory sheds at lower elevations to the south, built on the landscaped south facingslope of a 4
order sub-basin, went on stream in August, 2000. Total floor area is ~1.25 lakh ft2, with awaste processing capacity of 300 t.p.d. The main shed shelters the machinery and waste windrows enablingaerobic composting. But the relatively large freeboard, about 8.0 m between the concrete floor and gutteredroof, allows free draft of “essential” air and rain-water-spray over the windrows causing a spurt in yield of