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Jupiter Fact Sheet

Jupiter Fact Sheet

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Published by Bob Andrepont

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Feb 20, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/25/2012

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i-
ii
CONTENTSJUPITER'WEATHER..
..................................
-17
THE
GREAT
RET)
SPOT
................................18-20
JUPITER'S
MAGNETOSPHERE
ANDRADIATION
BELTS
.......
21-33
JUPITER'SRADIOSIGNALS............................
34-35
FORMATION
OFTHE
PLANET
JUPITER
...................
36-38THEMOONSOF
JUPITER
..............................
39-44PIONEERS
SURVEYINTERPLANETARY
SPACE
TO
BEYOND
SATURN
....................................
45-50
THE
POSSIBILITY
OFLIFE
IN
JUPITER'S
ATMOSPHERE...
51-53
DUST
..............................................
54
JUPITER'SIONOSPHERE
..............................
55
THE
INTERIOR
OF
JUPITER
...........................
56
'--It
 
REPIk;9tj.
l
-,
DT
ORIGiNAL
PAGU13
POOR
/
JUPITER'S
WEATHER
Scientists
now
believe
theyhave
worked
outmany
of
the
mainfeatures
of
Jupiter'satmosphere
and
weather.Instead
of
moving
from
equator
to
poles
andback,
as
on
Earth,
Jupiter'sweathercirculation
now
seems
either
to
be
relatively
local
(in
the
polar
regions),
or
to
flowprin-
cipally
around
the
planet
(in
the
temperate
and
equatorial
regions).This
meansthat
weathercirculation
onthe
whole
planet
is
somewhat
like
that
in
the
Earth's
tropics.
Pioneer
11
foundthat
Jupiter'satmosphere
appearsto
be
heated
uniformly
from
equator
to
polcs,
amajor
discover.,
if
it
is
confirmed.
The
Pioneer
11
pictures
showthat
the
planet'sbanded
cloud
structure
breaks
downabove
50
de-grees
latitude,andturnsinto
relatively
small,
mostl-7
circular
cloudfeatures
in
the
polar
regions.
Unlike
on
Earth,
every
visible
feature
on
Jupiterisa
cloud,and
cloud
motions
show
atmosphere
circulation.
Jupiter's
colorfulcloud
bands,the
belts
andzones,
nowappear
to
be
flow
featurestypical
oflarge,
rapidlly
rotating
planets
in
general.
They
are
similar
to
the
pattern
of
average
circulation
in
thi2
Earth's
equatorial
regions,
a
finding
which
ma:?
increase
understanding
of
Earth's
.^ath-r.
Most
atmospheric
features
on
Jupiter
have
a
life
of
decades
and
organized
structuresunknown
onEarth.
This
makes
the
planet
a
unicue
laboratory
for
understandincaall
woather
processes,
including
Earth's.
In
Jupiter's
polar
regions,
PLIonIQr
II's
heat
measure-
ments
and
first
pictures
of
the
poles
Sank:
s-o
show.
that
solar
weather
patterns
are
something
like
those
in
thc
Farth's
ecua-
torial
regions.
Theyseem
to
be
driven
by
atmospheric
con-
vection
(rising
of
warm
air,
falling
ofcool)
and
condensation.
The
polar
atmosphere
contains
areat
numlbeors
of
relatively
small
turbulent
features,
as
well
as
larce
(1,600
kilometers
(1,000Jules)
across)
circulnr
features,
whlicch
may
beliko
relativel-stationaryversions
ofthe
large-scalecyclones
in
the
Earth's
temperate
zones.
These
convective
features
probably
reprcsent
thc
combined
effects
of
the
horizontal
temperature
e
ra^li
.n'ls
at
the
poles
due
to
thle
lareco
(difforonccsZ
in
solar
heatincj
t.r,
and
01
Jupitel
-
mItoi1
irht
1
n
:.
masses
of
waarn,
moist
atmosnrhore
upwarO'
near
tle
-oles.
-r
ar
-
 
-~
I
-2--;
1vr
HEATBALANCEJUPITER
vs.
EARTH
EARTH
.~
SUN
LIGHT
ABSORBED
co
HEATEMITTED
U-
JUPI1
ER
c
~HEAT
EMITTED,
LL
w
ABSORBEDX|
z
w
cc
e:I
.IIIII
II
0
204060
80
LATITUDE,
deg
DRAMIATIC
DIFFERENCEbetweenJupiter's
heatbalance
and
Earth's
is
shown.
In
Earth'satmosphere,heat
emission
(dotted
line)
is
roughly
the
same
at
all
latitudes,
while
sunlight
absorbed
(solid
line)
is
far
higher
at
the
equator.
Solar
heatreachespoles
by
atmosphere
circulation.Since
Jupiter
hasan
internalheat
source,
it
emitsabout
the
sameheat
at
poles
and
equator,
thoughsunlight
is
much
greater
at
the
equator.
To
eventhings
up,
extra
internalheatmoves
th~rough
the
planet's
liquid
interior
and
comes
oust
at.
the
poles.
Pumps
in
Jupiter's
heatemission
line
showbelts
andzones.
-1:10
Lt
*X'a
-J:

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