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GEP Worksheets_Cells and Nutrients

GEP Worksheets_Cells and Nutrients

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Published by: prameeta on Feb 21, 2011
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11/27/2012

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Maris
 
Stella High School
Name: ___________________ GCE O Level Science BiologyClass (Index No.): _____ ( )2011 GEP Lesson 1Date: _______________
Cells & Nutrients
 
SUMMARYNucleusCytoplasmCell Surface/PlasmaMembrane
-Surrounded by nuclear membrane (separatesnucleus from surroundingcytoplasm).-Forms larger part of thecell-Partially/Selectivelypermeable-controls substancesleaving and entering thecell.Contains:a) CHROMATIN(contains DNA andproteins). Chromatincontrols cell division, cellrepair and cell activitiesb) Spherical structurescalled nucleoli (in chargeof building proteins)Contains:a) Mitochondria (rodshaped structures) [incharge of releasingenergy from cellrespiration: Look atchapter on Respiration.Energy used for growthand reproductionb) Vacuoles (fluid filledspace enclosed by amembrane). Containwater and foodsubstances.Contains:Proteins and lipids thatcontrol movement of substances in and out of the cell** Cells without nucleuseg red blood cells have ashort life span** Animal cells havemany small temporaryvacuoles. Plant cellshave 1 big permanentvacuole**May surround vacuolesin the cell: Tonoplast
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Differentiation in cellsDifferentiated cellAdaptations to function
Root hair cell-Long and narrow (increasesurface area to volume ratio for absorption of water and mineralsalts from the soil)-Concentrated cell sap:encourages absorption of water from the soil by osmosis-Large central vacuole: Holdsmore cell sap which in turnencourages absorption of water.Red blood cell-Cytoplasm contains haemoglobin (redpigment) that is used to transportoxygen-Flat and biconcave shape (increasesurface area to volume ratio for oxygento diffuse in and out of the cell quickly)-Absence of nucleus: More space tocarry haemoglobin to transport oxygenXylem vessels** Narrow and cylindrical tube (like astraw)** Empty space inside the xylem iscalled LUMEN, No protoplasm
DEAD structure** Contains lignin** Join many xylem vessels together 
Wood is formed.- Aids water movement by capillaryaction- No cross walls and protoplasm(Hollow lumen). This allows water andmineral salts to move quickly and easilythrough the lumen.- Lignin makes walls strong. Thisprevents collapse of the vessel. Itsupports the plant.-
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(A)
Carbohydrates
CompositionC, H, O (Ratio is 1:2:1)ExamplesSugars (GGFMLS, starch,cellulose, Glycogen)*** Saccharides refer tosugar Sugars ( 2 types)a)Simple sugars(monosaccharides)
GGF
Examples:
glucose
(found inanimals),
galactose
(milksugar. Common in mammalsonly),
fructose
(found inplants, uncommon in animals)b) Complex sugars(dissacharides andpolysaccharides).Disaccharides:
MLSSucrose
: Glucose + Fructose
Lactose:
Glucose + Galactose
Maltose
: Glucose + Glucose*** Glycogen, Starch andcellulose are polysaccharides*** Glycogen is known asanimal starch. It is found inanimals and fungi. Storedmainly in the liver andmuscles.Functions-Source of energy-Form supporting structures eg cellulose cell wall-Can be converted into other organic compounds like aminoacids, fats-Needed to form nucleic acids like DNA-Synthesize lubricants eg mucus that traps in the trachea-Produce nectar Test for reducingsugar 
(GGFML)
Benedicts’s Test: Brick Red Precipitate is formed.Test for starchIodine test: Starch turns iodine solution from brown to blueblack.
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