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Thyristor Switch Application

Thyristor Switch Application

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Published by: Riyah_Rae on Feb 21, 2011
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06/30/2013

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EE403
THYRISTOR SWITCH APPLICATION
Instructed By: Name : G. R. RabanIndex Number :Field :Group :Date of Performance :Date of Submission :
 
DISCUSSION
 
Advantages of using a thyristor switch in place of a mechanical switch
1.
 
A thyristor switch takes less time to operate as it does not contain any moving parts. Therefore,a thyristor switch is capable of operating speeder than a typical mechanical switch.2.
 
Thyristors consume very low power when compared with a mechanical switch. Mechanicalswitches produce heat due to its internal coil resistances, which also causes considerable powerloss.3.
 
Consider about the switching frequency of an application, thyristors can be applied to largerswitching frequency applications where normal mechanical switch cannot operate.4.
 
Comparing the power handling capacity with the size of the device, a thyristor is smaller in sizebut has a greater power handling capacity.5.
 
If the switching task is done by means of a mechanical switch there would be an arc generatedvia the two poles of the switch during the switching. But the thyristor will not produce such arc,thus providing safety.6.
 
Because thyristor ON/OFF operation is governed by electricity (Voltage) it is much easier to usethyristor switches over mechanical switches when an electrically controlled system is availablesuch as most modern control systems.7.
 
The operating behavior of thyristors can easily be determined
 by means of manufacture’s data
sheets, whereas normal mechanical switches do not have characteristics that can be used toobtain transfer functions of the device.8.
 
It is much reliable to use thyristors over electro-mechanical relays or switches because of therobust operation of the thyristor for a longer period time with minimum possibility of errors.9.
 
Maintenance cost of a thyristor is less when compared to a mechanical switch. A switch oftenrequires rust removing and lubricating.
Applications where the thyristor is preferred over mechanical switches
1.
 
Three phase inverter-switching circuits are constructed using thyristors. The switchingfrequency employed is larger, which mechanical switches cannot achieve.2.
 
Stepper motor control circuits are built using thyristors where high precision movements arerequired.3.
 
Fluorescent lamp ballast designs are done using thyristors where normal inductive ballast arereplaced.
 
4.
 
Automatic night lamp designs can be implemented by means of thyristors and Triacs since itinvolves low voltage components such as LDRs as well as normal 230V bulbs.5.
 
When automatic power flow control is required in cases like dam gate operation with electricmotors or barrier controlling of car parks, thyristors are used in designing such control systemssince it can handle larger capacities of power as well as can be easily controlled.6.
 
In aircraft power systems, modern automobiles, and power generation, rectification is carriedout using thyristor based electronics. Surface mounting package type thyristors are available onthe market and enable more compact circuit designs.7.
 
Thyristors are also used in electronic fan regulators that are more economical power savingwise, and compact in size compared to traditional transformer based regulator.
Comparison of dc and ac switch operation
The DC switch operates with the use of an extra commutative circuit. This is used to openthe switch. Once the gate voltage is applied to the thyristor it will conduct as far as it is forwardbiased. This conduction can only be stopped by bringing the current to zero. This is achieved by thecommutative circuit. The commutative circuit has a capacitor charged due to the conduction of thethyristor. It is partially connected in parallel to the thyristor and the connection is completed oncethe conduction needed to be stopped.
The AC switch doesn’t need the commutative circuit as the voltage across the
thyristorchanges twice during a single cycle of the AC waveform. This feature is used to open the switch.The AC switch consists of two thyristors connected in parallel and opposite to each other. Thisconnection allows the device to conduct the both half cycles of the AC waveform if the gates aresupplied with a voltage supply. This voltage supply is the control variable and in the each cycle thetwo thyristors get fired separately.In the positive half cycle the forward biased thyristor will conduct while the other remainsreverse biased and therefore open circuit. In the next half cycle if the gate signals are still availablethe previously conducted thyristor becomes reverse biased and therefore it stops conduction whilethe other thyristor starts firing due to both forward biased voltage and the applied gate voltage.These actions continue sequentially until the gate voltage stops.

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