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environment management

environment management

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Published by billatony

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Published by: billatony on Feb 22, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Detailed notes on Environmental Management
Environmental management involves the management of all components of the bio-physical environment, bothliving (biotic) and non-living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnected and network of relationships amongstall living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the relationships of the human environment,such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the bio-physical environment.As with all management functions, effective management tools, standards and systems are required. An'environmental management standard or system or protocol attempts to reduce environmental impact asmeasured by some objective criteria. The ISO 14001 standard is the most widely used standard for environmental risk management and is closely aligned to the European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme(EMAS).Environment as a stakeholder in Business & Sustainable DevelopmentThe very concept of sustainability and it¶s importance to business is the hot topic that needs to be discussed atthis point of time.So what exactly do we mean by sustainability?It is defined as meeting the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Six Principles of Sustainable Success
our business is part of a much larger system.2.
The culture of your business is determined by the context you create for it.3.
The soul of a business is found in the hearts of its people.4.
True power is living what you know.5.
ou can¶t predict the future, but you can create it.6.
There is a way to make an idea¶s time come
en List of Environmental Issues
Water 4.
Biodiversity and Land Use5.
hemicals, Toxics, and Heavy Metals6.
Air Pollution7.
Waste Management8.
Ozone Layer Depletion9.
Oceans and Fisheries10.
Difference between Climate and Weather
What Climate Means
 In short, climate is the description of the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.Some scientists define climate as the average weather for a particular region and time period, usually taken over 30-years. It's really an average pattern of weather for a particular region. When scientists talk about climate,they're looking at averages of precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity, phenomena such asfog, frost, and hail storms, and other measures of the weather that occur over a long period in a particular place.For example, after looking at rain gauge data, lake and reservoir levels, and satellite data, scientists can tell if during a summer, an area was drier than average. If it continues to be drier than normal over the course of manysummers, than it would likely indicate a change in the climate.
Why Study Climate?
 The reason studying climate and a changing climate is important, is that will affect people around the world.Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels, and change precipitation and other local climateconditions.
hanging regional climate could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies. It could also affecthuman health, animals, and many types of ecosystems. Deserts may expand into existing rangelands, andfeatures of some of our National Parks and National Forests may be permanently altered.
What Weather Means
Weather is basically the way the atmosphere is behaving, mainly with respect to its effects upon life and humanactivities. The difference between weather and climate is that weather consists of the short-term (minutes tomonths) changes in the atmosphere. Most people think of weather in terms of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, brightness, visibility, wind, and atmospheric pressure, as in high and low pressure.In most places, weather can change from minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day-to-day, and season-to-season.
limate, however, is the average of weather over time and space. An easy way to remember the difference isthat climate is what you expect, like a very hot summer, and weather is what you get, like a hot day with pop-upthunderstorms.
hat Make Up Our Weather
 There are really a lot of components to weather. Weather includes sunshine, rain, cloud cover, winds, hail,snow, sleet, freezing rain, flooding, blizzards, ice storms, thunderstorms, steady rains from a cold front or warmfront, excessive heat, heat waves and more.In order to help people be prepared to face all of these, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's(NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS), the lead forecasting outlet for the nation's weather, has over 25different types of warnings, statements or watches that they issue. Some of the reports NWS issues are: FlashFlood Watches and Warnings, Severe Thunderstorm Watches and Warnings, Blizzard Warnings, SnowAdvisories, Winter Storm Watches and Warnings, Dense Fog Advisory, Fire Weather Watch, Tornado Watchesand Warnings, Hurricane.atches and Warnings. They also provide Special Weather Statements and Short andLong Term Forecasts. 
limate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time thatrange from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in the average weather conditions or a change in thedistribution of weather events with respect to an average, for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events.
limate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth. In recent usage,especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. Itmay be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as global warming or anthropogenicglobal warming (AGW).Reasons for 
Plate tectonics:
Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land andocean areas and generates topography. This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation.
The position of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and therefore influences patterns of ocean circulation. The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat andmoisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate.
Solar output:
The sun is the predominant source for energy input to the Earth. Both long- and short-termvariations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate. Solar output also varies on shorter time scales,including the 11-year solar cycle
and longer-term modulations.Solar intensity variations are considered tohave been influential in triggering the Little Ice Age, and some of the warming observed from 1900 to 1950.The cyclical nature of the sun's energy output is not yet fully understood; it differs from the very slow changethat is happening within the sun as it ages and evolves. While most research indicates solar variability hasinduced a small cooling effect from 1750 to the present, a few studies point toward solar radiation increasesfrom cyclical sunspot activity affecting global warming.
Orbital variations
: Slight variations in Earth's orbit lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlightreaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonaldistribution. The three types of orbital variations are variations in Earth's eccentricity, changes in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotation, and precession of Earth's axis.
ombined together, these produce Milankovitch cycleswhich have a large impact on climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods,their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara, and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.
Volcanism is a process of conveying material from the crust and mantle of the Earth to its surface.Volcanic eruptions, geysers, and hot springs, are examples of volcanic processes which release gases and/or  particulates into the atmosphere.
Eruptions large enough to affect climate occur on average several times per century, and cause cooling (by partially blocking the transmission of solar radiation to the Earth's surface) for a period of a few years. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20thcentury (after the 1912 eruption of Novarupta affected the climate substantially. Global temperatures decreased by about 0.5 °
(0.9 °F). The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused the
ear Without a Summer. Muchlarger eruptions, known as large igneous provinces, occur only a few times every hundred million years, butmay cause global warming and mass extinctions. Volcanoes are also part of the extended carbon cycle. Over very long (geological) time periods, they release carbon dioxide from the Earth's crust and mantle, counteractingthe uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological carbon dioxide sinks. According to the US GeologicalSurvey, however, estimates are that human activities generate more than 130 times the amount of carbondioxide emitted by volcanoes.
 Ocean variability:
The ocean is a fundamental part of the climate system. Short-term fluctuations (years to afew decades) such as the El Niño±Southern Oscillation, the Pacific decadal oscillation, the North Atlanticoscillation, and the Arctic oscillation, represent climate variability rather than climate change. On longer timescales, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat bycarrying out a very slow and extremely deep movement of water, and the long-term redistribution of heat in theworld's oceans.
limate change In IndiaSeveral effects of climate change , including steady sea level rise, increased cyclonic activity, and changes inambient temperature and precipitation patterns, have affected or are projected to affect India. Ongoing sea levelrises have submerged several low-lying islands in the Sundarbans, displacing thousands of people.Temperaturerises on the Tibetan Plateau, which are causing Himalayan glaciers to retreat.
Increased landslides and flooding are projected to have an impact upon states such asAssam.Ecological disasters, such as a 1998 coral bleaching event that killed off more than 70% of corals in thereef ecosystems off Lakshadweep and the Andamans, and was brought on by elevated ocean temperatures tiedto global warming, are also projected to become increasingly common.The first among the countries to beaffected by severe climate change is Bangladesh. Its sea level, temperature and evaporation are increasing, andthe changes in precipitation and cross boundary river flows are already beginning to cause drainage congestion.There is a reduction in fresh water availability, disturbance of morphologic processes and a higher intensity of flooding and other such disasters. Bangladesh only contributes 0.1% of the world¶s emissions yet it has 2.4% of the world¶s population. In contrast, the United States makes up about 5 percent of the world's population, yetthey produce approximately 25 percent of the pollution that causes global warming.
The Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research has reported that, if the predictions relating toglobal warming made by the Intergovernmental Panel on
hange come to fruition, climate-relatedfactors could cause India's GDP to decline by up to 9%; contributing to this would be shifting growing seasons

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