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Rr411812 x Ray Metallography

Rr411812 x Ray Metallography

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Published by: SRINIVASA RAO GANTA on Aug 21, 2008
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Code No: RR411812
Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008
X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY
(Metallurgy & Material Technology)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
\u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6
1. Discuss the history of X-radiations. Describe the methods for X-ray production.
[16]
2. (a) Draw the following planes and directions in a tetragonal unit cell (001), (011),
(113), [110], [201], [101]. Show cell axes.

(b) Rubidium is a BCC crystal. The angle of di\ufb00raction for (321) set of planes is at 270 for the \ufb01rst order re\ufb02ection. The wavelength of X-rays used is 0.0711nm. Calculate the interplanar distance of the planes. What is the atomic radius of Rubidium atom?

[8+8]
3. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Multiplicity factor
(b) Lorentz factor.
[8+8]
4. (a) Describe how powder photograph is taken?
(b) Describe how powder pattern of Cubic crystals can be analyzed.
[8+8]
5. Giving the principle, Describing the design and with a neat sketch explain the
working of focusing Cameras.
[16]
6. (a) What is the principle involved in Di\ufb00ractometre with monochromatic crystal.
(b) With a neat sketch explain the working of above Di\ufb00ractometre.
[8+8]

7. A Transmission pinhole photograph is made of a sheet of Aluminum 0.5 mm thick with Cu K\u03b1 radiation. Consider only the (111) re\ufb02ection which occurs at 2\u03b8 = 38.40 . Imagine the sheet to be divided into four layers, the thickness of each being equal to one fourth of the total thickness. Calculate the fraction of the total di\ufb00racted energy for each layer.

[16]
8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation.
[16]
\u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6
1 of 1
Code No: RR411812
Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008
X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY
(Metallurgy & Material Technology)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
\u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6
1. (a) What is the frequency (per second) and energy per quantum (in joules) of
x-ray beams of wavelength 0.71A0 (Mo K\u03b1 ) and 1.54A0 (Cu K\u03b1 )?
[7]

(b) Calculate the velocity and kinetic energy with which the electrons strike the target of an X-ray tube operating at a voltage \u2018V\u2019. Determine the short- wavelength limit of the continuous spectrum emitted and the maximum energy per quantum of radiation?

[9]
2. (a) Explain the phenomenon \u2018scattering by a unit cell\u2019 with neat sketch.
[9]
(b) Structure factor is independent of the shape and size of the unit cell. Explain.
[7]
3. (a) Describe Laue method of X-ray di\ufb00raction.
[9]
(b) What does the each intense point in X-ray di\ufb00raction represent in Laue pat-
tern? Explain.
[7]
4. (a) How does Debye-Scherrer di\ufb00raction pattern look?
[4]
(b) Where is Debye-Scherrer method useful?
[6]
(c) Explain how a powder camera is superior to a Di\ufb00ractometer with examples.
[6]
5. Compare the following:
(a) Powder method and Laue method
(b) Debye-Scherrer Camera and Guinier Camera.
[8+8]
6. (a) Cu K\u03b1 radiation is incident on a Xenon \ufb01lled proportional counter. Calculate
the ratio of average pulse size in the escape peak to that in the normal peak.
(b) Write a note on energy-intensive Di\ufb00ractometry.
[8+8]
7. What is the basic principle involved in crystal structure determination? Explain
various steps involved in determination of unknown structures.
[16]
8. Write notes on the following:
(a) Focussing Cameras
(b) Techniques used in stress measurements.
[8+8]
\u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6
1 of 1
Code No: RR411812
Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008
X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY
(Metallurgy & Material Technology)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
\u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6
1. (a) Explain with a neat sketch, the order of re\ufb02ection.
[7]

(b) The atomic radius of Molybdenum atom is 0.1363 nm. Compute the inter- atomic spacing for (111) set of planes in the molybdenum crystal. The crystal structure of molybdenum is bcc. What is the interplanar spacing for (220) set of planes?

[9]
2. (a) In a drawing of a hexagonal prism, indicate the following planes and directions:
(1210), (1012), (1011), [110], [111], [021]. Show cell axes.
(b) What is Stereographic Projection? Show the lattice reorientation caused by
turning on stereographic projection.
[8+8]
3. (a) Describe Laue method of X-ray di\ufb00raction.
[9]
(b) What does the each intense point in X-ray di\ufb00raction represent in Laue pat-
tern? Explain.
[7]
4. (a) How does Debye-Scherrer di\ufb00raction pattern look?
[4]
(b) Where is Debye-Scherrer method useful?
[6]
(c) Explain how a powder camera is superior to a Di\ufb00ractometer with examples.
[6]
5. (a) With a neat sketch explain back-re\ufb02ection Lane method.

(b) A Powder specimen in the form of a rectangular plate has a width of 0.45 in., measured in the plane of the di\ufb00ractometre circle, which has a radius of 4.37 in. If it is required that the specimen entirely \ufb01ll the incident beam at all angles and that measurements must be made to angles as low as 2\u03b8 = 120 , what is the maximum divergence angle that the incident beam may have?

[8+8]
6. What is the principle involved in transmission Laue method? With a neat sketch
explain the transmission Laue method?
[16]
7. With an example discuss the structure determination in detail.
[16]
8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation.
[16]
\u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6 \u22c6
1 of 1

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