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Examining Linkages between Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihoods: Literature Review

Examining Linkages between Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihoods: Literature Review

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In the disaster context emphasis has been generally placed on the initial humanitarian and emergency response. However, recently there has been an increasing recognition of the importance and value of disaster risk reduction (DRR) programming. This comes from the understanding that though humanitarian efforts are important and required in the aftermath of a disaster, a comprehensive view of risk and vulnerability are important elements in preventing, reducing and mitigating the negative impacts of shocks on lives and livelihoods.

Even though DRR has been recognized as invaluable, it still remains a somewhat nebulous concept, and includes elements of programming that are named various different things: mitigation, prevention, “building back better,” etc. Many organizations continue to struggle with what exactly DRR encompasses and how to incorporate it into their mandate.

This review is the first output of a three year research program looking at the intersection of DRR and livelihoods and is intended to clarify DRR concepts and programming elements, identify good practice, and assess the impact of DRR programs on livelihood outcomes, assets, and institutions. The purpose of this review is to establish baseline definitions and trends, review existing literature and suggest gaps in knowledge that will help to focus the content of the subsequent field case studies.

This document is available for download at our website: https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/display/FIC/Examining+Linkages+between+Disaster+Risk+Reduction+and+Livelihoods+%28Literature+Review%29
In the disaster context emphasis has been generally placed on the initial humanitarian and emergency response. However, recently there has been an increasing recognition of the importance and value of disaster risk reduction (DRR) programming. This comes from the understanding that though humanitarian efforts are important and required in the aftermath of a disaster, a comprehensive view of risk and vulnerability are important elements in preventing, reducing and mitigating the negative impacts of shocks on lives and livelihoods.

Even though DRR has been recognized as invaluable, it still remains a somewhat nebulous concept, and includes elements of programming that are named various different things: mitigation, prevention, “building back better,” etc. Many organizations continue to struggle with what exactly DRR encompasses and how to incorporate it into their mandate.

This review is the first output of a three year research program looking at the intersection of DRR and livelihoods and is intended to clarify DRR concepts and programming elements, identify good practice, and assess the impact of DRR programs on livelihood outcomes, assets, and institutions. The purpose of this review is to establish baseline definitions and trends, review existing literature and suggest gaps in knowledge that will help to focus the content of the subsequent field case studies.

This document is available for download at our website: https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/display/FIC/Examining+Linkages+between+Disaster+Risk+Reduction+and+Livelihoods+%28Literature+Review%29

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Published by: Feinstein International Center on Feb 23, 2011
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08/31/2013

 
 
Examining Linkages between DisasterRisk Reduction and Livelihoods
 
Literature Review
Feinstein International CenterTufts University
 Acknowledgements
The Feinstein International Center at Tufts University would like to thank the Office of U.S. Foreign DisasterAssistance/USAID for its support of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihoods Programming research. Thisreview would not have been possible without the help of FIC Research Assistants Nicole Coglianese and EricAnderson. FIC would also like to thank staff from the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance/USAID,Overseas Development Institute, Catholic Relief Services, Oxfam America, World Bank, CARE, Mercy Corps,the Office of Management and Budget, and the American Red Cross for their helpful insight into DRR.
 
 
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Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 41. Defining DRR ..................................................................................................................................... 62. Dimensions of DRR ............................................................................................................................ 93. The DRR Framework ....................................................................................................................... 10Current Gaps in DRR Knowledge and Programming ................................................................................... 131. Limited National Capacity ............................................................................................................... 132. Limited Funding for DRR compared to Relief Efforts ...................................................................... 143. Lack of Standardized Definitions, Tools, Methodologies, or Assessments ..................................... 144. Limited Incorporation of Vulnerability as an Underlying Risk Driver ............................................. 155. Minimum Coordination amongst Programs ................................................................................... 156. Lack of Project Monitoring, Impact Evaluations, and Cost-benefit Analyses ................................. 167. Limited Scope beyond Natural Hazards and Rural Areas ............................................................... 17Summary and Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 17Appendix A: DRR Topics .............................................................................................................................. 20A1: Migration .......................................................................................................................................... 20A2. Urbanization .................................................................................................................................... 21A3. Financial Capital ............................................................................................................................... 233a. Microfinance and Credit ............................................................................................................... 253b. Remittances ................................................................................................................................. 26A4. Social Capital .................................................................................................................................... 29A5. Gender .............................................................................................................................................. 31A6. Indigenous Knowledge ..................................................................................................................... 33A7. Overview of DRR Frameworks ......................................................................................................... 35A8. Conflict and the Multi-hazard Environment .................................................................................... 37Appendix B: Interviews ............................................................................................................................... 39Appendix C: ISDR terminology .................................................................................................................... 40Appendix D: Livelihood Framework ............................................................................................................ 43Appendix E: Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 44Appendix F: Annotative Bibliography ......................................................................................................... 51
 
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Examining Linkages between DRR andLivelihoods: Literature Review
In the disaster context emphasis has beengenerally placed on the initial humanitarian andemergency response. However, recently therehas been an increasing recognition of theimportance and value of disaster risk reduction(DRR) programming. This comes from theunderstanding that though humanitarian effortsare important and required in the aftermath of a disaster, a comprehensive view of risk andvulnerability are important elements inpreventing, reducing and mitigating thenegative impacts of shocks on lives andlivelihoods. As outlined in the InternationalStrategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) and inthe Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA), DRRincludes early warning, improved governance,building up community and householdresilience, and reducing the underlying riskfactors while strengthening disasterpreparedness (ISDR, 2004). Even though DRRhas been recognized as invaluable, it stillremains a somewhat nebulous concept, andincludes elements of programming that arenamed various different things: mitigation,prevention, “building back better,” etc. Manyorganizations continue to struggle with whatexactly DRR encompasses and how toincorporate it into their mandate. This review isthe first output of a three year researchprogram looking at the intersection of DRR andlivelihoods and is intended to clarify DRRconcepts and programming elements, identifygood practice, and assess the impact of DRRprograms on livelihood outcomes, assets, andinstitutions. The purpose of this review is toestablish baseline definitions and trends, reviewexisting literature and suggest gaps inknowledge that will help to focus the content of the subsequent field case studies. The reportwas compiled via an extensive literature reviewand interviews with members of internationalorganizations, NGOs, and government workingin the sphere of disasters.We first give an overview of DRR and its basicdimensions, from categories of risk to contextand populations. We then present arecommended DRR framework thatencompasses the different components of DRRand allows for better standardization of methodology as well as a clearer understandingof the possible gaps surrounding DRRprogramming. This framework is entrenched inthe livelihood framework
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and takes a holisticapproach to incorporating DRR intohumanitarian, relief, and development work. Itexplicitly recognizes the effects of hazards anddisasters on livelihoods. The next sectionconcludes with recommendations on issues thatshould be given greater attention in the DRRliterature, research, and programming. Finally,an appendix of several topics that are relevantto thinking about DRR – migration,urbanization, the poverty trap and financialcapital, microfinance, remittances, insurance,social and political capital, gender, indigenousknowledge, DRR frameworks, and conflict andthe multi-hazard environment – is given as wellas recommended respective readings. Weconclude with an appendix of peopleinterviewed for this report, a list of ISDRdefinitions for basic DRR terminology, and anannotated bibliography.
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The livelihood framework attempts to organize thevarious factors (assets, policies, institutions,processes, and outcomes) in a vulnerability context(shocks, disasters, trends) which constrain or provideopportunities and shows how these componentsrelate to each other (DFID, 1997). See Appendix Dfor the full Livelihood Framework.

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