Examining Linkages between DRR andLivelihoods: Literature Review
In the disaster context emphasis has beengenerally placed on the initial humanitarian andemergency response. However, recently therehas been an increasing recognition of theimportance and value of disaster risk reduction(DRR) programming. This comes from theunderstanding that though humanitarian effortsare important and required in the aftermath of a disaster, a comprehensive view of risk andvulnerability are important elements inpreventing, reducing and mitigating thenegative impacts of shocks on lives andlivelihoods. As outlined in the InternationalStrategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) and inthe Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA), DRRincludes early warning, improved governance,building up community and householdresilience, and reducing the underlying riskfactors while strengthening disasterpreparedness (ISDR, 2004). Even though DRRhas been recognized as invaluable, it stillremains a somewhat nebulous concept, andincludes elements of programming that arenamed various different things: mitigation,prevention, “building back better,” etc. Manyorganizations continue to struggle with whatexactly DRR encompasses and how toincorporate it into their mandate. This review isthe first output of a three year researchprogram looking at the intersection of DRR andlivelihoods and is intended to clarify DRRconcepts and programming elements, identifygood practice, and assess the impact of DRRprograms on livelihood outcomes, assets, andinstitutions. The purpose of this review is toestablish baseline definitions and trends, reviewexisting literature and suggest gaps inknowledge that will help to focus the content of the subsequent field case studies. The reportwas compiled via an extensive literature reviewand interviews with members of internationalorganizations, NGOs, and government workingin the sphere of disasters.We first give an overview of DRR and its basicdimensions, from categories of risk to contextand populations. We then present arecommended DRR framework thatencompasses the different components of DRRand allows for better standardization of methodology as well as a clearer understandingof the possible gaps surrounding DRRprogramming. This framework is entrenched inthe livelihood framework
and takes a holisticapproach to incorporating DRR intohumanitarian, relief, and development work. Itexplicitly recognizes the effects of hazards anddisasters on livelihoods. The next sectionconcludes with recommendations on issues thatshould be given greater attention in the DRRliterature, research, and programming. Finally,an appendix of several topics that are relevantto thinking about DRR – migration,urbanization, the poverty trap and financialcapital, microfinance, remittances, insurance,social and political capital, gender, indigenousknowledge, DRR frameworks, and conflict andthe multi-hazard environment – is given as wellas recommended respective readings. Weconclude with an appendix of peopleinterviewed for this report, a list of ISDRdefinitions for basic DRR terminology, and anannotated bibliography.
The livelihood framework attempts to organize thevarious factors (assets, policies, institutions,processes, and outcomes) in a vulnerability context(shocks, disasters, trends) which constrain or provideopportunities and shows how these componentsrelate to each other (DFID, 1997). See Appendix Dfor the full Livelihood Framework.