at the beginning. Palloff and Pratt in Building Online Learning Communities (2007, pp. 165-6) listed someguidelines which facilitate online collaborating:
How will the group communicate?
What roles or duties will each person in the group performs?
Who is responsible for posting group responses to the main discussion board?
How will the group handle a member that is not participating?
Discuss any other topics that are unique to your group.For effective group work, the learners should have cooperative skills to do the activity. They need tocoordinate their work with others in the group. They need to have an outline of the goals, tasks, anddeadline to feel commitment to the group and the activity. The above-mentioned aspects will help tocreate successful collaboration
the instructor designs, manages, and monitors the activity so that eachstudent understands the expectations and their own responsibilities for participating in the activity.
actors for effective online peer collaboration in graduate-level
Espinoza and McKinzie in Online Collaboration: Two Models, designed activities for their graduatestudents to complete collaboratively between large groups with less instructor¶s interaction. The resultshowed that although students are at a graduate level, they still need the instructor¶s active participationand detailed and specific instructions. In spite of each student¶s responsibilities for completing the tasks of the project and learning outcomes of the project, the students still need to know if they are following theright course and need to receive feedback from the instructor on their progress. Another lesson learnedfrom this study was that students work more effectively and productively in small groups, where they canparticipate in a way that lets them feel they are contributing (Espinoza & McKinzie,1999).
There are two types of online collaboration: synchronous, like live chat, and asynchronous, likediscussion forums. As I mentioned above, each have good and bad points. For online instruction weneed to identify the principles that facilitate peer collaboration and discussion forums effectively. Theseprinciples are:1. Comprehensible objectives, instructions, and expectations for the group activity2. Small numbers for each group3. Coordination and participation from each member of the group4. Clear outline of tasks and deadlines for the group members5. Regular contribution with group membersThe key to facilitating collaboration using these principles is in the role of the instructor to use them, andmake the initial participation mandatory. By beginning with a clear structure, mandatory activities and