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Diseño instruccional aplicado al desarrollo de software educativo

Diseño instruccional aplicado al desarrollo de software educativo

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Published by Jacobo Hernández V
Eugenio Jacobo Hernández Valdelamar. Virtual Educa 2005.
Eugenio Jacobo Hernández Valdelamar. Virtual Educa 2005.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Jacobo Hernández V on Aug 22, 2008
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09/20/2014

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D@UJÜH @FUTRZEE@HFLC L^C@ELDH LC DJULRRHCCH DJ UHGTQLRJ JDZELT@WH Juajf`h Ilehbh Mjrfìfdjz Wlcdjclklr
 ileoNkl`c.rhsjfbcujtm.kx  ileoXmvNylmhh.ehk
 Gufdle`õf Lrturh Rhsjfbcujtm Tjefhchaël Jduelt`vl Alc`cjh
@fsurajftjs Uur 71>-5. Ehchf`l djc Wlccj Kàx`eh DG, Kàx`eh. mttp9//www.rhsjfbcujtm.kx mttp9//www.alc`cjh2.ehk.kx 2>>:
Rjsukjf.
Jf jstj lrtëeuch sj prjsjftl uf kàthdh plrl prhdue`r cl jspje`g`ele`õf `fstruee`hflc dj prhdueths dj shgtwlrj jduelt`vh, `fdjpjfd`jftj djc klreh kjthdhcõa`eh dj cl `fajf`jrël dj shgtwlrj quj sj usj plrl su djslrrhcch.
^lclbrls eclvj9
 Uhgtwlrj jduelt`vh, d`sjüh `fstruee`hflc, khdjchs `fstruee`hflcjs, pltrhfjs pjdlaõa`ehs, jstrltja`ls dj lprjfd`zlij.
<. @ftrhduee`õf
Jc prhdue`r shgtwlrj dj elc`dld js ufl tlrjl ehkpcjil. Ldjkìs dj dhk`flr chs ehfhe`k`jfths y mlb`c`dldjs tàef`els plrl mlejr prharlkls, js fjejslr`h lpjalrsj l ufl kjthdhchaël quj lsjaurj jc àx`th dj chs prhyjeths. U`f jkblrah, tlc vjz jc glethr quj kìs `kphrtlftj jf jc djslrrhcch dj ufl shcue`õf jx`thsl js cl ehkprjfs`õf djc ehftjxth djc prhbcjkl. Jf jc elsh djc djslrrhcch dj prhdueths jduelt`vhs dj shgtwlrj, jc ehftjxth sj lkpcël jf dhs d`rjee`hfjs9
 jc ìrjl dj ehfhe`k`jfth y chs tjkls jspjeëg`ehs plrl chs eulcjs jc s`stjkl djbj prhvjjr ufl shcue`õf dj eìceuch y v`sulc`zle`õf?
 chs lspjeths pjdlaõa`ehs quj djbjf `kpclftlrsj jf jc s`stjkl plrl prhkhvjr hbsjrvle`hfjs, let`v`dldjs y jxpjr`kjfths quj tjfalf sjft`dh plrl chs quj lprjfdjf y cjs pjrk`tl ajfjrlr fujvhs ehfhe`k`jfths. Jf jc prhyjeth Alc`cjh cl v`s`õf js hgrjejr l chs jdueldhrjs y jstud`lftjs, mjrrlk`jftls y lkb`jftjs dhfdj jc hbijt`vh dj lprjfdjr dj ghrkl jgjet`vl pujdl charlrsj.
 
 
^lrl charlr jsth, ehftlkhs ehf jxpjrths jf ìrjls dj ehfhe`k`jfth ehkh kltjkìt`els, gës`el, b`hchaël, m`sthr`l, jftrj htrls, quj prhphfjf shcue`hfjs quj cujah shf `kpcjkjftldls phr fujstrhs jxpjrths jf djslrrhcch dj shgtwlrj. U`f jkblrah, lufquj ufl dj cls prjk`sls js ehftjkpclr cls fjejs`dldjs dj chs pclfjs dj jstud`h djc f`vjc jsehclr lc quj vlf d`r`a`dls cls lpc`ele`hfjs, ehfs`djrlkhs quj djbj `fehrphrlrsj ehkh plrtj `ftjarlc djc prhejsh dj djslrrhcch dj shgtwlrj, jc lfìc`s`s dj fjejs`dldjs y kjtls dj lprjfd`zlij dj chs usulr`hs g`flcjs plrl djslrrhcclr s`stjkls quj slt`sglalf d`emls fjejs`dldjs. Jstl plrtj sj jstlbl rjlc`zlfdh ehf jc jfghquj dj cl `fajf`jrël dj rjqujr`k`jfths, hr`jftldl l rjlc`zlr uf jstud`h dj glet`b`c`dld djc s`stjkl, hbtjfjr y lflc`zlr chs rjqujr`k`jfths, y rjlc`zlr cl jspje`g`ele`õf y dheukjftle`õf dj d`emhs rjqujr`k`jfths. U`f jkblrah, sj djtjetõ quj chs rjqujr`k`jfths dj chs s`stjkls fjejs`tlblf ehkpcjkjftlrsj ehf kìs `fghrkle`õf djc ehftjxth jduelt`vh (rjqujr`k`jfths dj dhk`f`h), dhfdj chs s`stjkls shf lpc`eldhs. Js jf jstj sjft`dh sj dje`d`õ rjlc`zlr ufl `fvjst`ale`õf jfgheldl l kjihrlr cl jspje`g`ele`õf `fstruee`hflc dj chs prhdueths, l klfjrl quj pjrk`tl l chs d`sjüldhrjs y djslrrhccldhrjs thklr jf eujftl jsths lspjeths plrl su `kpclftle`õf, quj phr ch ajfjrlc shf hk`t`dhs phr su djsehfhe`k`jfth. Dj jstl klfjrl chs prhdueths lsë djslrrhccldhs, eukpc`rìf ehf cls jxpjetlt`vls dj chs usulr`hs.
2. Fjejs`dldjs jf jc djslrrhcch dj shgtwlrj jduelt`vh
Jc shgtwlrj jduelt`vh js uf ìrjl blstlftj plrt`euclr. ^hr uf cldh t`jfdj l quj prhgjshrjs jftus`lstls sj `fvhcuerjf jf jc kufdh dj cl `fghrkìt`el y prhduzelf prharlkls ehf let`v`dldjs quj rjprhduejf ch quj mlejf jf jc slcõf dj eclsjs? phr htrh cldh, jstìf chs `fghrkìt`ehs quj shf ltrlpldhs phr jc jfelfth dj phdjr jfsjülr uslfdh cl ehkputldhrl, y trltlf dj pclsklr sus `djls lejrel dj cl jduele`õf jf jc kjd`h quj jcchs ehfhejf. Lc plrjejr eldl qu`jf trlblil phr su cldh y rjdjseubrj jc m`ch fjarh ehf e`jrtl pjr`hd`e`dld. Jf jstj ehftjxth pujdjf `djft`g`elrsj chs s`au`jftjs gjfõkjfhs9
 Js uf mjemh quj chs djslrrhccldhrjs dj shgtwlrj pujdjf slbjr kuemh dj su hg`e`h, pjrh jf cl plrtj jduelt`vl prjdhk`fl shch cl `ftu`e`õf. Els` f`faùf prhgjs`hf`stl rje`bj ufl ghrkle`õf dhejftj durlftj sus jstud`hs, phr ch quj eulfdh lcau`jf qu`jrj dlr eclsjs h ehclbhrlr jf uf prhyjeth jduelt`vh, cls ùf`els rjgjrjfe`ls quj sj t`jfjf shf cls dj sus prhgjshrjs. ^hr ch lftjr`hr sj rjqu`jrj quj jc pjrshflc quj ehclbhrl jf uf prhyjeth jduelt`vh sjl `fdue`dh l cl pjdlahaël ehf jc g`f dj uf`g`elr cl v`s`õf dj chs prhyjeths y sjfs`b`c`zlr l chs ehclbhrldhrjs djc `kpleth dj chs k`skhs.
 Jx`stjf djslrrhcchs dj kjthdhchaëls dj `fajf`jrël dj shgtwlrj jduelt`vh _<[, dhfdj sj trltl dj gus`hflr l cl pjdlahaël ehf cl `fajf`jrël dj shgtwlrj. Jc prhbcjkl js quj eulfdh lplrjejf lvlfejs s`af`g`elt`vhs jf lcaufl dj cls dhs ìrjls (tõkjsj ehkh jijkpch cl hr`jftle`õf l hbijths _2[), d`emls kjthdhchaëls trltlf dj sjr ldlptldls, ehf jc r`jsah dj hbv`lr sus pr`fe`p`hs y mlejr djkls`ldh àfgls`s jf cl tjefhchaël. Jc prhbcjkl ehf jstj jfghquj, js quj jf chs ùct`khs <> lühs mlf lplrje`dh ufl k`rëldl dj kjthdhchaëls dj `fajf`jrël dj shgtwlrj ehf jfghqujs kuy d`vjrshs (p.ji. RZ^, KUG, kjthdhchaëls ìa`cjs, hr`jftle`õf l lspjeths, prhejshs ejftrldhs jf jc usulr`h, jte.) phr ch quj plrt`euclr`zlr eldl ufl dj jstls plrl mlejr shgtwlrj jduelt`vh plrjej fh sjr cl kjihr hpe`õf. Dj ch lftjr`hr sj lprje`lf dhs fjejs`dldjs `kphrtlftjs9
 ^rhvjjr lc jqu`ph dj djslrrhcch ehf chs ehfhe`k`jfths bìs`ehs djc ehftjxth jduelt`vh, jf lrls dj kjihrlr cl ehkuf`ele`õf dj `djls y lprhvjemlr jc trlblih mjemh jf jstl ìrjl.
 
 
 Ehftlr ehf ufl mjrrlk`jftl ehfejptulc quj pjrk`tl pclsklr chs lspjeths jduelt`vhs dj cl shcue`õf, s`f tjfjr quj khd`g`elr jc klreh dj trlblih prhp`h dj cl `fajf`jrël dj shgtwlrj.
5. ^jdlahaël plrl fh `f`e`ldhs
¸\uà djbj lprjfdjr jc jqu`ph kuct`d`se`pc`flr`h shbrj pjdlahaël8 Ch djsjlbcj js quj jc jqu`ph ehfhzel chs pr`fe`plcjs ehfejpths y prìet`els dj cl pjdlahaël, lpc`elbcjs l cl prhduee`õf djc shgtwlrj jduelt`vh. Jf jstj sjft`dh js `kphrtlftj slbjr quj –cl
pjdlahaël
 js… ufl e`jfe`l dj elrìetjr ps`ehshe`lc quj t`jfj phr hbijth jc jstud`h dj cl jduele`õf ehf hbijth dj ehfhejrch y pjrgjee`hflrch. Tlkb`àf js ufl e`jfe`l dj elrìetjr fhrklt`vh phrquj fh sj djd`el l djser`b`r jc gjfõkjfh jduele`hflc, s`fh l jstlbcjejr cls plutls h fhrkls quj mjkhs dj sjau`r plrl ccjvlr l bujf tàrk`fh d`emh gjfõkjfh‛ _4[. Trls lflc`zlr chs ehftjf`dhs dj jstl ìrjl dj ehfhe`k`jfth, sj ccjaõ l cl ehfecus`õf dj quj jc klreh tjõr`eh fjejslr`h jstì ehkpujsth (lc kjfhs) dj chs s`au`jftjs tõp`ehs9
 ^rhejsh jduelt`vh. Uj rjg`jrj l pclftjlr uf lkb`jftj pjdlaõa`eh ghrkldh phr cl rjcle`õf d`dìet`el (jftrj jc hbijth dj jstud`h y jc kljstrh), cl rjcle`õf dj jfsjülfzl-lprjfd`zlij (jftrj jc kljstrh y jc jstud`lftj) y cl rjcle`õf dj lprjfd`zlij (jftrj jc jstud`lftj y jc hbijth dj jstud`h) _:[.
 Tjhrëls djc lprjfd`zlij. Uj rjg`jrj l lqujccls tjhrëls quj `ftjftlf jxpc`elr eõkh lprjfdjkhs (Uo`ffjr, Brufjr, ^`lajt, Alafà, ^lpjrt) _7[.
 Tjhrëls dj cl `fstruee`õf. Uhf lqujccls quj prjtjfdjf djtjrk`flr cls ehfd`e`hfjs õpt`kls plrl jfsjülr _7[.
 D`sjüh eurr`euclr. Js jc prhyjeth quj prjs`dj cls let`v`dldjs jduelt`vls, quj prhphre`hfl `fghrkle`õf ehferjtl shbrj sus `ftjfe`hfjs (quà jfsjülr) y shbrj cl klfjrl dj ccjvlrcls l elbh (euìfdh y eõkh jfsjülr y tlkb`àf quà, euìfdh y eõkh jvlculr) _1[.
 Djslrrhcch djc eurrëeucuk. Js cl pujstl jf prìet`el djc prhyjeth, ehf cls fjejslr`ls ldjeule`hfjs, khd`g`ele`hfjs y jfr`quje`k`jfths ehft`fuhs, quj `kpc`el jc mjemh dj ehftrlstlr uf prhyjeth jduelt`vh ehf cl rjlc`dld dj cls lucls _1[. Jstl `fduee`õf djbj sjr ehkpcjkjftldl ehf lcaufhs lspjeths tjefhcõa`ehs jspjeëg`ehs rjcle`hfldhs ehf cl jduele`õf9
 Gufdlkjfths dj cl tjefhchaël jduelt`vl (kjd`h dj ehkuf`ele`õf dj `fghrkle`õf + kàthdhs dj `fstruee`õf) _=[.
 Djslrrhcch dj `fstruee`õf blsldl jf ehkputldhrl.
 Djslrrhcch dj rjeurshs kuct`kjd`l. Dj cl `fvjst`ale`õf rjlc`zldl plrl ehfdjfslr jstj klreh dj rjgjrjfe`l, sura`õ cl fjejs`dld dj ehftlr ehf lcaùf kàthdh quj pjrk`t`jrl lflc`zlr cls rjcle`hfjs djc prhejsh jduelt`vh ehf jc g`f dj hralf`zlr y prjsjftlr cl `fghrkle`õf plrl charlr uf lprjfd`zlij s`af`g`elt`vh jf chs s`stjkls dj shgtwlrj djslrrhccldhs. Guj lmë dhfdj lplrje`õ cl rjgjrjfe`l l uf ehfejpth quj rjcle`hfl jc lfìc`s`s djc lprjfd`z, ehf jc d`sjüh y djslrrhcch dj cl `fstruee`õf? jsth js cclkldh d`sjüh `fstruee`hflc (Rhbjrt Aclsjr, <072) _0[. Js jstj kàthdh jc quj sj ml thkldh ehkh rjgjrjfe`l plrl prhdue`r ufl jspje`g`ele`õf dj chs prhdueths dj shgtwlrj jduelt`vh y quj sj djser`bj l ehft`fule`õf.

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