PHYSIOLOGY: REFLEXES Page 2
Classification Systems of Reflexes A. According to NUMBER of SYNAPSES at level of theSPINAL CORD:
only one synapse2.
two or more synapses in between your 1
order neuron and your final commonpathway.
B. According to LOCATION of SENSORY RECEPTOR
skin (cutaneous) and subcutaneous;; resultfrom stimulation of the receptors present in the skin andmucous membrain
they are all
e.g.,withdrawal reflex or scratch reflex.2.
deep tissues (i.e. muscle, bone, joints); reflexesthat result from stimulation of receptors present in musclesor tendons, e.g., stretch reflex3.
i.e. carotid sinus, carotid arch, baroreceptors,chemoreceptors; clinically important reflexes
micturation, defacation and erection.
C. According to LOCATION of EFFECTOR RESPONSE
i.e. skeletal muscle contraction2.
i.e. tachycardia, bradycardia, increase instroke volume*overlaps such as somato-autonomic (i.e. You get pinchedand then there is an increase in blood pressure aside fromthe withdrawal response.)
D. According to SITE of INTEGRATION
(in the CNS)
1. Spinal Cord2. Brainstem3. Thalamus4. Hypothalamus5. Cerebral Cortex (where most learned reflexes aremediated)
TWO MAIN TYPES OF REFLEX ARCS: 1. Monosynaptic Reflex
(e.g. stretch reflex of musclespindles)
made up of a two-neuron pathway fromreceptor to effector (the afferent or sensory neuron has adirect synaptic connection with the efferent / motor neuron,without the intervention of interneurons), e.g., stretch ormyotactic reflex
which is the most rapid of all reflexes,utilizing 1A afferent which are the largest diameter, fastest/conducting of any afferent nerves
2. Polysynaptic Reflex / Multi-synaptic
More than one synapse-
Made up of a few or several interneuronsintersposed between the afferent and efferentneurons, e.g.,
i.e. pain reflex, inverse stretch (of golgi tendon),and withdrawal flexor cross extensor reflexes-
cardiovascular baroreceptorreflex (involving your pre- and post- synapticneurons). May elicit a cardioinhibitory response orcardioaccelatory. **In both mono- and polysynaptic arcs, the activity ismodified by such phenomena as spatial and temporalsummation, subliminal fringe effects, and other laws. *A shows 3 interneurons; B shows 4 interneurons;C shows 4 interneurons and a neuron that sendsfibers back.
Three Target Reflexes (examples of Spinal Reflexes)
Stretch or Myotatic Reflex
monosynaptic; the simplestreflex; passively stretching a skeletal muscle causes a
of that same muscle and relaxation of
the antagonistic muscle, e.g., “knee jerk or patellar reflex”–
a light tap on patellar tendon
pulls on and brieflystretches the quadriceps femoris muscles (an extensor)
reflexive contraction of quadriceps and relaxation of semitendinosus muscle (a flexor). This is a key reflex thathelps maintain posture; most rapid of all reflexes, It has twoforms:1.
Phasic stretch Reflex
elicited by primary endingsof muscles spindles2.
Tonic stretch reflex
depends on both primary andsecondary endings The stretch reflex is a
mediatedby 1A and 2 sensory fibers emanating from the musclestretch receptor known as
. Best studied indecerebrate animals, also in spinal animals that haverecovered from spinal shock. Examples are seen in deeptendon reflexes, such as the patellar reflex, Achilles reflex,masseter, triceps, etc. The muscle that is stretchedcontains sensory receptor known as the
The muscle spindle elicits the reflex contraction B.
Inverse Stretch (or Inverse Myotatic) Reflex/ Autogenicinhibition
di-, tri- synaptic reflex, extension of stretchreflex, a.k.a.
(but may pertain to the pathologic responsesecondary to spinal cord lesions).- A relaxation in response to a
stroing muscletension (muscle contraction stretches the tendon
). Thereceptor for the inverse stretch reflex is the
The fibers from the golgi tendon organs make up the1B group of myelinated, rapidly conducting sensory nervefibers. Stimulation of these 1B fibers leads to theproduction of IPSPs on the motor neurons that supply themuscle from which the fibers arise. The 1B fibers end onthe spinal cord on inhibitory interneurons that in turnterminate directly on the motor neurons (they also makeexcitatory connections with motor neurons supplying antagonists to the muscle.) The inverse reflex is a
this is a polysynaptic reflex, This involvesmany receptors outside of muscle that contracts. Afferent volleys arising from activation of sensory receptorscause:1.
Excitatory interneurons to activate alpha motorneurons that supply flexro muscles in theipsilateral limb.