International Adoptions - Dependency & Socialisation
Alan Challoner MA(Phil.) MChS ©
Davis and Havighurst (1947)
, Milner (1951)
, and Williams and Scott (1953)
. Of interest here is Milner’s study that examined the relationship between reading readinessin first-grade children and patterns of parent-child interaction. Milner found that uponschool entrance the lower-class child seems to lack chiefly two advantages enjoyed bythe middle-class child.
is described as “a warm positive family atmosphere or adult-relationship pattern which is more and more being recognized as a motivationalprerequisite of any kind of adult-controlled learning.” The lower-class children inMilner’s study perceived adults as predominantly hostile.
advantage is an extensive opportunity to interact verbally withadults in the family. The latter point is illustrated by parental attitudes toward mealtimeconversation, lower-class parents tending to inhibit and discourage such conversation,while middle-class parents encourage it.There are probably more adoptions undertaken in cross-cultural situations than manypeople realise and now it is more common for international adoptions to take placewhen the child to be adopted is no longer an infant and has been exposed to at least itsindigenous culture and possibly that of an institution. It is important for potentialadoptive parents to try and understand how a child can be better understood and how itcan be helped to deal with its life-changing transition.Other important issues that are beyond culture also have to taken into consideration.Children awaiting international adoption and families travelling to adopt these childrencan be exposed to a variety of infectious diseases. foreign countries often havedifferent immunization practices and methods of diagnosing, treating, and monitoringdisease. Reporting of medical conditions can also differ.The prevalence of infectious diseases varies from country to country and may or maynot be common among adopted children. The transmission of tuberculosis, hepatitis B,and measles from adopted children to family members has been documented.Furthermore, infectious organisms (e.g., intestinal parasites), bacterial pathogens (e.g.,Bordetella pertussis and Treponema pallidum), and viruses (e.g., humanimmunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses) may cause clinically significant morbidityand mortality among infected children.Diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome or avian influenza have not beenreported among international adoptees, but transmission is possible if infection ispresent. Family members may be infected by others during travel or by their adoptedchild after returning home. Families preparing to adopt a child from abroad should payspecial attention to the infectious diseases they may encounter and to the precautionsthey should take on returning home.
Davis, W. A., And Havighurst, R. J.
Father of the Man: How Your Child Gets HisPersonality
. Boston, USA, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947.
Milner, E. A.
A Study of the Relationships Between Reading Readiness in Grade OneSchool Children & Patterns of Parent-Child Interaction.
; [pp., 95-112]; 1951.
Williams, Judith R.; & Scott, R. B.
Growth & Development of Negro Infants: IV. Motordevelopment & its relationship to child rearing practices in two groups of negro infants.
; [pp., 103-121]; 1953.
. International adoption: issues in infectious diseases.