control the interrelated parameters thatgovern the operation of transmissionsystems including series impedance, shuntimpedance, current, voltage, phase angleand the damping of oscillation.
CLASSIFICATION OF FACTSCONTROLLERS:
These are classified into the following types
Static shunt compensators.
Thyristor controlled and thyristor switchedreactor. Thyristor switched capacitor.Static synchronous compensators.
Static series compensators
Thyristor switched series capacitor.Thyristor controlled series capacitor GTO thyristor controlled switched capacitor.Static synchronous series compensators.
Unified power flow controller.
Inter line power flow controller.
Shunt compensation is used to influence thenatural electrical characteristics of thetransmission line to increase the steady-statetransmittable power and to control thevoltage profile along the line
Static Var Compensator (SVC):
A shunt-connected static var generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to exchangecapacitive or inductive current so as tomaintain or control specific parameters of theelectrical power system.
The characteristics of a SVC are describedas
• Based on normal inductive and capacitiveelements• Not based on rotating machines• Control function is through power electronics.The STATCOM which is discussed in Sect.1.3 has the following characteristics• Based on voltage source synchronized tonetwork • Not based on rotating machines• Control function is based on adjustment of voltage.By placing the shunt in the middle of a lineand therefore dividing the line into twosegments the voltage at this point can becontrolled such that it has the same value asthe end line voltages. This has the advantagethat the maximal power transmission isincreased.If the shunt compensator is locatedat the end of a line in parallel to a load it ispossible to regulate the voltage at this endand therefore to prevent voltage instabilitycaused by load variations or generation or line outages. As shunt compensation is ableto change the power flow in the system byvarying the value of the applied shunt