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Flexible Alternating Curent Transmission Systems -Facts

Flexible Alternating Curent Transmission Systems -Facts

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Published by Bharadwaj Santhosh

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Published by: Bharadwaj Santhosh on Feb 25, 2011
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FACTS  is a power electronic based systemand it means “Flexible Alternating CurrentTransmission Systems”. Basically FACTSare  collection  of  power  transmissioncontrol technologies based on very highpower  solid  state  electronic  devices.Traditional  FACTS  controllers  includethyristor controlled reactor (TCR), thyristor switched  capacitor  (TSC),  thyristor switched  reactors  (TSR)  and  static  var compensators  (SVC).  The  basic  circuitoperation and the principles of each areexplained with corresponding figures.New technology FACTS controllers likethyristor  controlled  series  compensators(TCSC), Static synchronous compensators(STATCOM),  Static  synchronous  seriescompensators (SSSC), Unified power flowcontroller (UPFC) are also explained.Thesingle line diagrams of static synchronusseries  compensators  ,static  varscompensators and various operating modesof thyristor controlled swityched  capacitor are illustrated .The  V-I characterstics of and dynamic response of SVC are drawn .Comparisons between series compensatorsand shunt compensators are brought out.FACTS are more advantageous as  theyimprove power transmission capacity andsystem stability and control the reactivepower  flow   and  reduce  the  need  for construction  of  new  transmission  lines,capacitors, reactors etc.
The  FACTS  technology  opens  up  newopportunities  for  controlling  power  andenhancing the usable capacity of present, aswell  as  new  and  upgraded,  lines.  Thepossibility that current and therefore power through a line can be controlled enables alarge potential of increasing the capacity of existing  lines.  These  opportunities  arisethrough the ability of FACTS controllers to
control  the  interrelated  parameters  thatgovern  the  operation  of  transmissionsystems including series impedance, shuntimpedance, current, voltage, phase angleand the damping of oscillation.
These are classified into the following types
Static shunt compensators.
Thyristor controlled and thyristor switchedreactor. Thyristor switched capacitor.Static synchronous compensators.
Static series compensators
Thyristor switched series capacitor.Thyristor controlled series capacitor GTO thyristor controlled switched capacitor.Static synchronous series compensators.
Unified power flow controller.
Inter line power flow controller.
Shunt compensation is used to influence thenatural electrical characteristics of thetransmission line to increase the steady-statetransmittable power and to control thevoltage profile along the line
Static Var Compensator (SVC):
A shunt-connected static var generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to exchangecapacitive or inductive current so as tomaintain or control specific parameters of theelectrical power system.
The characteristics of a SVC are describedas
• Based on normal inductive and capacitiveelements• Not based on rotating machines• Control function is through power electronics.The STATCOM which is discussed in Sect.1.3 has the following characteristics• Based on voltage source synchronized tonetwork • Not based on rotating machines• Control function is based on adjustment of voltage.By placing the shunt in the middle of a lineand therefore dividing the line into twosegments the voltage at this point can becontrolled such that it has the same value asthe end line voltages. This has the advantagethat the maximal power transmission isincreased.If the shunt compensator is locatedat the end of a line in parallel to a load it ispossible to regulate the voltage at this endand therefore to prevent voltage instabilitycaused by load variations or generation or line outages. As shunt compensation is ableto change the power flow in the system byvarying the value of the applied shunt
compensation during and following dynamicdisturbances the transient stability limit canbe increased and effective power oscillationdamping is provided. Thereby the voltage of the transmission line counteracts theaccelerating and decelerating swings of thedisturbed machine and therefore dampens thepower oscillations.
Thyristor-Controlled andThyristor-Switched Reactor (TCR and TSR):
TCR: A shunt-connected, thyristor-controlledinductor whose effective reactance is variedin a continuous manner by partial-conductioncontrol of the thyristor value.An elementarysingle-phase thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) is shown in Fig. 1.The current in the reactor can be controlledfrom maximum to zero by the method of firing delay angle control. That is theduration of the current conduction intervals iscontrolled by delaying the closure of thethyristor valve with respect to the peak of theapplied voltage in each half-cycle (Fig. 1).For firing angle = 0◦ the amplitude is at itsmaximum and for firing angle = 90◦ theamplitude is zero and no current is flowingduring the corresponding half-cycle. Like thisthe same effect is provided as with aninductance of changing value.A  thyristor switched reactor (TSR) has similar equipment to a TCR, but is used only at fixedangles of 90◦ and 180◦, i.e. full conduction or no conduction. The reactive current iS(t) willbe proportional to the  applied voltage.
: A shunt-connected, thyristor-switched inductor whose effectivereactance is varied in a stepwise manner by
Thyristor controlled reactor 

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