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Project on SolarEnergy

Project on SolarEnergy

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Published by syamyyy

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Published by: syamyyy on Feb 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/22/2013

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C H A P T E R – III N T R O D U C T I O N
Solar energy is the world’s most abundant permanent source of energy. Strictlyspeaking, all forms of energy on the earth are derived from sun. However, themore conventional form of energy, the fossil fuels received their solar energyinput ones ago and possess the energy in a greatly concentrated form. Thesehighly concentrated solar energy sources are being used at such a rapid rate thatthey will be depleted in not-too distant future.  Our most common forms of energyPetroleum, natural gas and natural gas-liquids, coal and wood. Exceptingwood, all these common sources have finite supplies. The life is  estimated torange from 15 years for a natural gas and nearly 300 years for coal. Therefore,as these non-renewable sources are consumed, the man kind must turn itsattention to longer-form permanent type for energy sources. The two mostsignificant such sources are nuclear are solar energy.Nuclear energy requires advanced technology and reliable utilizationand costly means for its safe and reliable utilization and may have undesirableside effects. Solar is a dependent energy source without new requirements of ahighly technical and specialized nature for its wide utilization. In additional, it isfree from pollution.The amount of solar energy intercepted by the earth is about 17x10
18
Kwh/year which is only tiny fraction of the total energy released by the conversionof 4 million tons of hydrogen per second to helium in the sun.Solar energy, which is the ultimate source of most from of energy used now,is clean, safe and exists unviable quantities in many countries. The draw back inusing solar radiation as energy, as have been pointed out, are that it cannot bestored and it is a dilute form of energy.In addition to the thousands of ways in which the sun’s energy has beenused by both man and nature throughout the time to grow food, to see by, to dry
 
clothes. Solar energy is used to heat and cool buildings, to heat water, to power refrigerators; to operate engines and sewage treatment plant, water stills,furnaces, distillation equipment, crop dryers and sludge dryers powered by solar energy electrolyzes convert water to clean hydrogen gas (a fuel ).Solar energy is not a new concept and it has been realized that it has atremendous potential. Although abundant, solar energy impinging on the earth isrelatively dilute, also it is inter milting in its nature.  The first factor makes anysolar radiation to heat on a practical scale, relatively large.  The second factor makes it necessary to have a thermal energy storage.  The utilization of solar energy can be approached broadly in three ways.1. Low grade thermal devices making used direct and diffuse radiation.  Thesedevices are further classified into flat plate type and focusing type.  Theseare easy to maintain , can be operated with local skills but restricted to lowtemperature range (100o c )The focusing type on the other hand can achieve temperature from 200o  cto    3000oc.  But these are sophisticated ones and requires highly reflectingsun tracking devices and high skills of maintenance solar.2. Direct conversion of solar energy into electric using Photovoltaic cells.Solar cells with photo voltaic effect principal and solar batteries using photochemical effects can be placed under this heading.  That day is not far off,when mankind receives electricity from solar powered satellites. It isestimated that one large satellite could produce as much power as 1 to 10Nuclear power reactors in the 1000 to  2000 MW  range.3. Biological conversion of solar energy into transport fuels.  All the stored upfuels that are now inherited by the earth owe their origin to solar radiationdepend. Processes called photo synthesis.  Exploitation by this methodincludes permentation   and pyrolysis of plant material to produce liquidfuels and gases development from efficient plants using ways to grow upusual to ferment, producing methane and hydrogen gas.
 
India a fast developing country needing cheap energy with mostly ruralpopulation and favorable weather conditions is best suited for solar energyutilization.  Cost of utilization of solar energy can be computed favorably withother means of energy as cost of standard fuels in India is high. 

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