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Introduction to Hydrodynamic StabilityRatings:

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/49569274/Introduction-to-Hydrodynamic-Stability

10/26/2012

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Introduction to hydrodynamicstability

This notebook has been written in

Mathematica

byMark J. McCreadyProfessor and Chair of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Notre DameNotre Dame IN 46556USAMark.J.McCready.1@nd.eduhttp://www.nd.edu/~mjm/ It is copyrighted to the extent allowed by whatever laws pertain to the World Wide Web and the Internet.I would hope that as a professional courtesy, that if you use it, that this notice remain visible to other users.There is no charge for copying and disseminationVersion: 3/16/98This notebook is intended to give a first introduction to hydrodynamic instability. This includes both the physicalconcepts and several of useful mathematical manipulations.There are three parts. The first discusses the concept of linear instability theory and uses a simple wave equationto demonstrate the linearization and calculation of temporal and spatial growth.The second part derives the stability relation for a two-layer inviscid flow, the Kelvin-Helmoltz instability.The third part shows how to derive the basic equation of hydrodynamic stability for Newtonian fluids, the Orr-Sommerfeld equation.

The general idea of flow instability

It has been observed in nature, that the steady state solutions for different systems can become unstable toinfinitesimal disturbances which should be expected to always be present, (the ground is always vibrating,buildings breath and bend, etc. ...) and possibly because of molecular motions. A common example is theformation of waves on bodies of water owing to the action of wind. The "Taylor- Couette Flow" instability is apopular laboratory instabilility that arises due to centrifugal force, and Rayleigh-Benard convection, which arisesbecause of density differences is important both in nature and in laboratories.Each of these instabilities has a precise, although not necessarily well understood, physical mechanism. Thecommon feature of an instability is that infinitesimal velocity or density perturbances are amplified(by the baseflow or global forces) and thus grow to finite size. Growth of distrubances could be algebraic or exponential.Typical analysis (such as those shown below) assume an exponential growth because it is expected that this wouldoverwhelm any algebraic growth. However, algebraic analyses have been used in some situations whereexponential models did not match data. It is not clear that these have matched any better, but this discussion isbeyond the point of this introductory module.Infinitesimal perturbations are expected to be in the form of noise. The question is, how to represent this when wewant to model instability. Fortunately, the noise is infinitesimal, which means its amplitude is small compared toany length scale such as its wavelength. This allows the nonlinear governing equations to be well-approximatedby linearized versions. The linear equations are amenable to a Fourier mode analysis that can be used to representany noice signal as a linear combination of independent modes. If we assume exponential growth (because is the strongest possible and what is observed in nature), and if thegrowth is in time (which could be how it occurs) an equation for the amplitude,

a

, of some disturbance,

a

is

a

=

a

0 Exp[

ω

t

], where

a

0 is the initial amplitude of the disturbance and

ω

is the temporal growth rate. Even is

a

0 isof molecular dimensions (i.e. 10^-10 cm) , and the growth rate is a very reasonable (for common systems),

ω

= 1 / s. We find that it would take only 23 seconds for the disturbance to reach an amplitude of 1 cm !!! We thusexpect a linearly unstable flow to show some evidence of growing disturbances, unless the residence time is short.Here is the time calculation

N

Log

1

1

10

10

23.0259

Note that if the amplitude is growing exponentially, at some point nonlinear processes will become important.Nonlinear analysis is beyond the scope of this module.2

intro.hydrodynamic.stability.nb

Analysis of instability

To do mathematical analysis of an instability, we need to chose a "basestate" that is the base flow in the absenceof an instability. This could be 0 velocity or it could be a falling film with no waves or a stratified flow with nowaves, etc..Since we expect that linear equations should govern the initial growth of instability, we will linearize the completegoverning equations around the base flow. This is done by taking the baseflow, say

u

0 and allowing a smallperturbation, say

. Thus the complete velocity field would be

u

=

u

0 +

u

1. Note this this is for a onedimensional problem. For higher dimensions, you would have order

components in the other directions even if the base flow in that direction was 0.The magnitude of

is small (<<1) because it is, for example, the amplitude to wavelength of the noise signal.We proceed by substituting

u

=

u

0 +

u

1into the governing equations and the boundary conditions and collectingpowers of

. Because we desire the analysis to be valid for any arbitrary

, we can separate the system intopowers of

.The

0

equations will be the equations for the base state and should be identically 0.The

1

equations, should give the behavior of the very small amplitude disturbance and will contain

u

0, which weknow and

u

1, the distrubance that we wish to study. These equations are necessarily linear (we just linearizedthem with this procedure). Any higher powers of

will be ignored and saved for when we want to do nonlinearanalysis (not today!!).To determine the response of the equation to an arbitray noise signal, we choose a mode that represents the kind of disturbance that we expect to see. If the domain is fixed and there is no flow through, (e.g., a solid beam), wemight expect to use fixed spatially periodic modes that grow in time. For waves on water, we would use(traveling) spatially and temporally periodic disturbances that could grow in space and/or time.Since the system is linear, we can examine the response of any separate mode without worrying about the effect of other modes. This linearity allows us to decompose an arbitrary disturbance into an integral (i.e. a sum) of Fouriermodes, each of which will ultimately satisfy the equations and boundary conditions. By scanning the entirefrequency or wavenumber range, we can be sure that we understand the effect of any initial (infintesimal)disturbance.

intro.hydrodynamic.stability.nb

3

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Turbulence-Kolmogorov

Refinery and Seals

Transonic flow

Lng Terminals

3.4.b.01 Air Blower

102664609 Rotary Compressors

Shock Detonation

Introduction to Aeroacoustics

Sail Aerodynamics

CFD Incompressible Flow

Compressible flow-Aerothermodynamics

Turbulence Reynold stress

couette flow reynold stress.pdf

Finite Volume Methods

CFD Numerical Errors

Turbulence-Von-karman Integral

Theta-Beta Compressible Flow

Aerodynamic analysis of sailing ship

Grid generated turbulence

Fanno Flow

prandtl Meyer

Bluff Body Aerodynamics

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