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Table Of Contents

Introduction
The Handling of Plant Chromosomes
I.INTRODUCTION
II.SQUASH TECHNIQUE — MITOTIC AND MEIOTIC CHROMOSOMES
A.Collection of Roots
B.Pretreatment of Roots
1.Ice-Cold Water
2.8-Hydroxyquinoline
3.Colchicine
-Bromonaphthalene
5.Paradichlorobenzene
C.Fixation
1.Carnoy’s Solution 1
2.Carnoy’s Solution 2
3.Propionic Acid Alcohol Solution
D.Staining of Chromosomes
1.Aceto-Carmine Staining
2.Feulgen Staining
3.Alcoholic-Hydrochloric Acid-Carmine
4.Lacto-Propionic-Orcein
5.Carbol Fuchsin Staining
6.Giemsa Staining
III.SMEAR TECHNIQUE FOR PLANT CHROMOSOMES
A.Chromosome Preparation from the Root
B.Chromosome Preparation from Cell Suspension and Callus
C.Chromosome Preparation from Flower
D.Chromosome Preparation from Shoot
IV.POLLEN STAINING
A.Pollen Fertility
B.Chromosome Count in Pollen
C.Differential Staining of Pollen
1. Ingredients
2.Staining of Pollen with Thin Wall
3.Staining of Pollen with Thick and Spiny Walls, or Both
V.POLLEN–STIGMA INCOMPATIBILITY
A.Staining Pistils by Aniline Blue
B.Cleared-Pistil Technique
c.Modified Cleared-Pistil Technique
A. Chromosome Preparation
1.Collection, Pretreatment, and Fixation of Root
2.Preparation of Buffer
3.Enzyme Solution
4.Preparation of Slides
1. Prehybridization Method
2. Hybridization
3.Observation and Photography
1.Protocol 1: Fiber-FISH on Extended Nuclear DNA Fibers
2.Protocol 2: Fiber-FISH Using BAC and Circular Molecules as Targets
3.Protocol 3: Staining Fibers (Yo-Yo Staining)
4.Source of Chemicals
VII.TOTAL DNA EXTRACTION — PLANT GENOMIC DNA
A.Protocol 1
1. Solutions
2. Procedure
B.Protocol 2
VIII.DETERMINATION OF NUCLEAR DNA CONTENT OF PLANTS BY FLOW CYTOMETRY
A.Introduction
B.Protocol 1
1.Stock Solutions
2. Final Solutions
3. Procedure
C.Protocol 2
1.Flow Cytometry after DAPI Staining
2.Flow Cytometry after Propidium Iodide (PI) Staining
3.Materials for Flow Cytometry
D.Protocol 3
1.Procedure
2.Fluorescent Staining of Nuclear DNA
3.Cell Cycle in Higher Plants
4.Nuclear DNA Content and the Cell Cycle
5.Determination of Nuclear Genome Size
6.Resolution of DNA Content Histograms
7.Instrument Calibration
8.Preparation of Fixed CRBC Nuclei for Instrument Alignment
9.CRBC Buffers
10.Determination of Ploidy in Plants by Flow Cytometry
11.Identification of Interspecific Hybrids
12.Identification of Aneuploid Lines
E.Protocol 4
1.Chemicals
2.Extraction Buffers
3.Stain Solution A (10 mL)
4.Stain Solution B (10 mL)
5.Isolation and Staining of Nuclei
F.Validity of Genome Size Measurements by Flow Cytometry
IX.KARYOTYPING AND SORTING OF PLANT CHROMOSOMES BY FLOW CYTOMETRY
1.Accumulation of Mitotic Metaphase
2.Analysis of the Degree of the Metaphase Synchrony
1.Suspensions of Plant Chromosomes
2.Alignment of Flow Cytometer for Chromosome Analysis and Sorting
C.Protocol 3
1.Univariate Flow Karyotyping and Sorting of Plant Chromosomes
2.Bivariate Flow Karyotyping and Chromosome Sorting
D.Protocol 4
1.Physical Mapping of DNA Sequences Using PCR
2.Two-Step Sorting
3.Reagents and Solutions
E.Remarks
Cell Division
A.Process of Mitosis
1.Interphase
2.Prophase
3.Metaphase
4.Anaphase
5.Telophase
6.Cytokinesis
B.Duration of Mitosis
C.Chromosome Orientation at Interphase and Prophase
D.Somatic Association
A.Process of Meiosis
1.Cycle 1
2.Cycle 2
B.Duration of Meiosis
C.Gametogenesis
Genetic Control of Meiosis
II.SYNAPTIC MUTANTS
A.Distribution of Synaptic Mutants
B.Origin of Synaptic Mutants
VII.DIPLOID-LIKE MEIOSIS IN ALLOPOLYPLOIDS
VIII.HAPLOIDY
A.Mechanism of Chromosome Elimination
B.Genetics of Chromosome Elimination
C.Haploid-Initiator Gene in Barley
IX.MALE STERILITY
A.Classification of Male Sterility
B.Mechanism of Male Sterility
Mode of Reproduction in Plants
II.SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
III.ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
A.Apomixis
1.The Compilospecies Concept
2.Sources of Apomixis
3.Distribution of Apomixis
4.Types of Apomixis
5.Endosperm Development in Apomixis
6.Identification of Apomixis
7.Classification of Plants Based on Natural Crossing
8.Regulation of Apomixis
9.Apomixis in Crop Improvement
B. Vegetative Reproduction
1.Vegetative Reproduction by Specialized Vegetative Organs
2.Vegetative Reproduction by Adventitious Roots and Shoots
3.Vegetative Reproduction by Grafting
4.Vegetative Reproduction by Tissue Culture
5.Advantages of Vegetative Reproduction
IV.THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF SEX DETERMINATION IN PLANTS
A.System of Sex Determination
1.Male Heterogametic (Female XX; Male XY = X-Y System)
2.Male Heterogametic (Female XX; Male XO = X-O System)
3.Male Heterogametic (but with One Extra Chromosome)
4.Female Heterogametic [Female XY (ZW); Male XX (ZZ) (Z-W System)]
5.Compound Chromosomes (Interchanges among X, Y, and Autosomes)
B.Determination of Heterogametic Sex in Plants
1.Cytological Identification
2.Sex Linkage Inheritance
4.Competition Tests in Pollination
5.Self-Pollination of Plants that are Normally Unisexual
6.Crosses between Diploids and Autotetraploids
7.Sex Ratio among Progeny of Primary Trisomics
C.Sex Expression
D.The Evolution of Dioecism
Karyotype Analysis
II.NOMENCLATURE OF CHROMOSOMES
III.KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS BY MITOTIC METAPHASE CHROMOSOMES
A.Chromosome 1 (7H)
B.Chromosome 2 (2H)
C.Chromosome 3 (3H)
D.Chromosome 4 (4H)
E.Chromosome 5 (1H)
F.Chromosome 6 (6H)
G.Chromosome 7 (5H)
IV.KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS BY PACHYTENE CHROMOSOMES
V.KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS BY FLOW CYTOMETRY
E.Genetic Studies
F.Use of Deficiencies in Hybrid Maize Breeding
G.Ring Chromosomes
II. DUPLICATIONS
A. Introduction
B.Origin of Duplications and Deficiencies
C.Identification of Duplications and Deficiencies
D.Transmission of Duplications and Deficiencies
E.Use of Duplications and Deficiencies in Genetic Studies
III. INTERCHANGES
B.Identification of Interchanges
C.Robertsonian Translocations
D.Interchanges in Genetic Studies
E.Principles of Producing Interchange Testers
F.Identification of Interchanged Chromosomes
G.B–A Interchanges
H.Role of Interchanges in Evolution of Crops
IV. INVERSIONS
B. Types of Inversions
1. Paracentric Inversion
2.Pericentric Inversion
Chromosomal Aberrations — Numerical Chromosome Changes
I.EUPLOIDY
B.Classification of Euploidy
1.Autopolyploidy
2. Allopolyploidy
II. ANEUPLOIDY: TRISOMICS
A. Primary Trisomics
1. Introduction
2.Sources of Primary Trisomics
3.Identification of Primary Trisomics
4.Transmission of the Extra Chromosome in Primary Trisomics
5.Genetic Segregation in Primary Trisomics
B. Secondary Trisomics
2.Sources of Secondary Trisomics
3.Identification of Secondary Trisomics
4.Transmission of the Extra Chromosome in Secondary Trisomics
5.Genetic Segregation in Secondary Trisomics
C.Tertiary Trisomics
1.Introduction
2.Sources of Tertiary Trisomics
3.Identification of Tertiary Trisomics
4.Transmission of the Extra Chromosome in Tertiary Trisomics
5.Genetic Segregation in Tertiary Trisomics
6.Balanced Tertiary Trisomics
D. Telotrisomics
2.Sources of Telotrisomics
3.Identification of Telotrisomics
4.Transmission of the Extra Chromosome in Telotrisomics
5.Genetic Segregation in Telotrisomics
E. Acrotrisomics
2. Sources of Acrotrisomics
3.Identification of Acrotrisomics
4.Transmission of the Extra Chromosome in Acrotrisomics
5.Genetic Segregation in Acrotrisomics
F.Compensating Trisomics
2.Sources of Compensating Trisomics
3.Identification of Compensating Trisomics
4.Transmission of the Extra Chromosome in Compensating Trisomics
5.Genetic Segregation in Compensating Trisomics
G. Novel-Compensating Diploid
2.Sources of Novel-Compensating Diploid
3.Identification of Novel-Compensating Diploid
4.Meiotic Behavior in Novel-Compensating Diploid
5.Breeding Behavior of Novel-Compensating Diploid
6.Usefulness of Novel-Compensating Diploid
III. MONOSOMICS AND NULLISOMICS
B.Sources of Monosomics and Nullisomics
1.Spontaneous Origin
2.Chemical Treatments and X-Rays
4.Asynaptic and Desynaptic Lines
5.Intra- and Interspecific Hybrids
6.Genetic System
C.Identification of Monosomics and Nullisomics
1. Morphological Identification
2. Cytological Identification
3.Meiosis in Monosomics and Nullisomics
4.Behavior of Univalent Chromosomes at Meiosis
D.Fertility of Monosomics and Nullisomics
E.Breeding Behavior of Monosomics and Nullisomics
F.Genetic Studies
1.Locating Recessive Genes
2.Locating Dominant Genes
3.Locating Duplicate Genes
IV.ALIEN ADDITION LINES
B.Production of Alien Addition Lines
1.Hexaploid Species
2. Tetraploid Species
3. Diploid Species
C.Identification of Alien Addition Lines
3.Meiosis in Alien Addition Lines
4.Intercrossing Disomic Alien Addition Lines
5.Biochemical Identification
D.Breeding Behavior of Alien Addition Lines
1.Monosomic Alien Addition Lines
2.Disomic Alien Addition Lines
E.Fertility in Alien Addition Lines
V.ALIEN SUBSTITUTION LINES
B.Types of Alien Substitution
1.Genomic Substitution
2.Chromosome Substitution and Translocation Lines
C.Practical Application of Substitution Lines
D.Gene Pool Concept
1.Primary Gene Pool (GP-1)
2.Secondary Gene Pool (GP-2)
3.Tertiary Gene Pool (GP-3)
Genome Analysis
II.CLASSICAL TAXONOMY AND GENOME DESIGNATIONS
III.GENOMIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG DIPLOID SPECIES
A.Crossing Affinity
B.Chromosome Pairing
1.Intragenomic Chromosome Pairing
2.Intergenomic Chromosome Pairing
3.Variable and Minimum Chromosome Pairing
VI.ANCESTORS OF ALLOPOLYPLOID SPECIES
1.The Source of the A-Genome
2.The Source of the B-Genome
3.The Source of the D-Genome
VII.GENOME ANALYSIS BY MOLECULAR METHODS
A.Genome Analysis by Nucleotide Sequence Variation
B.Genome Analysis by Multicolor FISH
Chromosomal Aberrations in Cell and Tissue Culture
II.CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN CALLUS
A.Media Composition
B.Age of Callus
C.Nature of Callus (Morphogenic vs. Nonmorphogenic)
D.Genetic Background of the Explants
E.Kind of Media (Solid vs. Liquid)
III.MECHANISM OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN CULTURE
IV.CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN REGENERATED PLANTS
A.Diploid vs. Polyploid Species
C.Source of Explant Materials
D.Culture Conditions
V.CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN HAPLOID CALLUS AND THEIR REGENERANTS
VI.CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN SOMATIC HYBRIDS
A.Stable Somatic Hybrids
B.Partially Stable Somatic Hybrids
C.Unstable Somatic Hybrids
Transgenic Crops
II.PRESENT STATUS OF TRANSGENIC CROPS
III.PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC CROPS
IV.CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN TRANSGENIC CROPS
A.Time in Culture with 2,4-D Prior to Transformation
B.Genetic Background of the Explant
C.Seed Fertility in the Transgenic Crops
V.CYTOLOGICAL BASIS OF GENE SILENCING
Sources of Chemicals
Materials for Flow Cytometry
Reagents and Solutions*
Preparation of Media
Linkage Map of Barley
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Singh_Plant Cytogenetics 2nd ed

Singh_Plant Cytogenetics 2nd ed

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Published by: agegnehu on Feb 26, 2011
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