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Contributions of Management Gurus to Total Quality Management

Contributions of Management Gurus to Total Quality Management



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Published by mechidream

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: mechidream on Feb 26, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Course -21Total Quality Management
4. Discuss the contributions of management gurus to total quality management 
Introduction: -
To fully understand the TQM movement, we need to look at the philosophies of no tableindividuals who have shaped the evolution of TQM. Their philosophies and
teachings havecontributed  to  our  knowledge  and  understanding  of  quality  today.
Their  individualcontributions are summarized in Table.
Walter A. Shewhart
was a statistician at Bell Labs during the
1920s and 1930s. Shewhartstudied randomness and recognized that variability ex isted in all manufacturing processes.He developed quality control charts that are
used to identify whether the variability in theprocess is random or due to an as signable cause, such as poor workers or miscalibratedmachinery. He stressed that
eliminating variability improves quality. His work created thefoundation for to day’s statistical process control, and he is often referred to as the“grandfather of 
quality control.”
W. Edwards Deming
is often referred to as the “father of qual ity control.” He was a statisticsprofessor at New York University in the 1940s. After
World War II he assisted many Japanesecompanies in improving quality. The Japan ese regarded him so highly that in 1951 they
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established the
Deming Prize,
an annual
award given to firms that demonstrate outstandingquality. It was almost 30 years
later that American businesses began adopting Deming’sphilosophy.A number of elements of Deming’s philosophy depart from traditional notions
of quality.The first is the role management should play in a company’s quality  improvement effort.Historically, poor quality was blamed on workerson their
lack of productivity, laziness, orcarelessness. However, Deming pointed out that
only 15 percent of quality problems areactually due to worker error. The remaining
85 percent are caused by processes andsystems, including poor management.
Deming said that it is up to management to correctsystem problems and create an
environment that promotes quality and enables workers toachieve their full poten tial. He believed that managers should drive out any fear employeeshave of identi fying quality problems, and that numerical quotas should be eliminated.Proper
methods should be taught, and detecting and eliminating poor quality should beeveryone’s responsibility.Deming outlined his philosophy on quality in his famous “14 Points.” These points
areprinciples that help guide companies in achieving quality improvement. The prin ciples arefounded on the idea that upper management must develop a commitment
to quality andprovide a system to support this commitment that involves all employ ees and suppliers. Demingstressed that quality improvements cannot happen without
organizational change that comesfrom upper management.
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Joseph M. Juran
After W. Edwards Deming, Dr.
Joseph Juran
is considered to
have hadthe greatest impact on quality management. Juran originally worked in
the quality programat Western Electric. He became better known in 1951, after the
publication of his book
Quality Control Handbook.
In 1954 he went to Japan to
work with manufacturers and teachclasses on quality. Though his philosophy is
similar to Deming’s, there are somedifferences. Whereas Deming stressed the need
for an organizational “transformation,”Juran believes that implementing quality
initiatives should not require such a dramaticchange and that quality management
should be embedded in the organization.One of Juran’s significant contributions is his focus on the definition of quality and
the cost of quality. Juran is credited with defining quality as fitness for use rather than
simply conformanceto specifications. As we have learned in this chapter, defining
quality as fitness for use takesinto account customer intentions for use of the prod uct, instead of only focusing on technicalspecifications. Juran is also credited with de veloping the concept of cost of quality, which allows
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