Lecture 25Recovery System
Chapter 15, Database Systems Concepts, by Silberschatz, et al, 1997
Portions reproduced with permission
A computer system, like any other mechanical or electrical system is subject to failure.There are a variety of causes, including disk crash, power failure, software errors, a firein the machine room, or even sabotage. Whatever the cause, information may be lost. Thedatabase must take actions in advance to ensure that the atomicity and durabilityproperties of transactions are preserved. An integral part of a database system is arecovery scheme that is responsible for the restoration of the database to a consistentstage that existed prior to the occurrence of the failure.
The major types of failures involving data integrity (as opposed to data security) are:
. The transaction can not continue with its normal executionbecause of such things as bad input, data not found, or resource limitexceeded.
. The system has entered an undesirable state (for example,deadlock), as a result of which a transaction can not continue with itsnormal execution. The transaction, however, can be reexecuted at a later time.
There is a hardware malfunction, or a bug in the databasesoftware or the operating system, that causes the loss of the content of volatilestorage, and brings transaction processing to a halt. The content of the nonvolatilestorage remains intact, and is not corrupted.
A disk block loses its contents as a result of either a head crash or failure during a data transfer. Copies of data on other disks, or archival backupson tertiary media, such as tapes, are used to recover from the failure.
. Information here does not usually survive system crashes.
This information normally does survive system crashes, butcan be lost (in a head crash, etc).
System designed not to loss data.