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Paul Kussmaul - Types of creative translating

Paul Kussmaul - Types of creative translating

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116Jensen&JakobsenJAKOBSEN,AL.1998."Loggingtimedelay
in
translation".
CopenhagenWorkingPapersinLSP1,
73-101.Copenhagen:CopenhagenBusinessSchool.JAKOBSEN,AL.1999."Loggingtargettextproductionwith
Translog".
HANSEN,G.(ed.),9-20.JAKOBSEN,AL.
&
L.SCHOU.1999.
"Translog
documentation".HANSEN,
G.
(ed.),Appendix,1-36.JENSEN,A1999."Timepressureintranslation".HANSEN,G.(ed.),103-119.JAASKELAINEN,
R.
1989a."Theroleofreferencematerialinprofessionalvs.non-professionaltranslation:Athink-aloudprotocolstudy".
EmpiricalStudiesinTranslationandLinguistics
ed.byS.TIRKKONEN-CONDIT,175-200.StudiesinLanguages17.Joensuu:UniversityofJoensuu.JAASKELAlNEN,R.1989b."Translationassignmentinprofessionalvs.non-professionaltranslation".
TheTranslationProcess
ed.byC.SEGUINOT,87-89.Toronto:YorkUniversity.JAASKELAlNEN,
R.
1993."Investigatingtranslationstrategies".
RecentTrendsinEmpiricalTranslationResearch
ed.byS.TIRKKONEN-CONDIT
&
1.
LAFFLING,99-120.Joensuu:UniversityofJoensuu.JAASKELAlNEN,R.1996."Hardworkwillbearbeautifulfruit?Acomparisonoftwothink-aloudprotocolstudies".
Meta
41(1),60-74.JAASKELAlNEN,
R.
&S.TIRKKONEN-CONDIT.1991."Automatisedprocessesinprofessionalvs.non-professionaltranslation:Athink-aloudprotocolstudy".
EmpiricalResearchinTranslationandInterculturalStudies.
ed.byS.TIRKKONEN-CONDIT,89-110.Tubingen:Narr.KRINGSH.P.1986a.
WasindenKopfenvonUbersetzernvorgeht.
Tubingen:Narr.KRINGS,H.P.1986b."TranslationproblemsandtranslationstrategiesofadvancedGermanlearnersofFrench(L2)".HOUSE,
1.
&S.BLUM-KULKA,263-276.LORSCHER,W.1991.
TranslationPerformance,TranslationProcess,andTranslationStrategies:APsycholinguisticInvestigation.
Tubingen:Narr.
TYPESOFCREATIVETRANSLA'
Paul
Kussmaul
UniversityofMainz,Germersheim,German)
Zusammenfassung
UrnetwastiberkreativeProzessebeienglisch-deutschenUbersetzungen(diemeistenstammenausT.S.Eliot's
OldPossum'sBookofPracticalCats)
zuerfahren,wirdvondenBegriffen
Perspektive,Fokus,Figur/GrundRelation,Szene,Rahmen,Kern,unscharfeRander
und
Verkettungen
alsheuristischeMittelGebrauchgemacht.DadurchlassensicheineReihekreativerTechnikenunterscheiden:
1.
VerkettungvonKategorien2.AuswahlvonSzenenelementen3.Szenenerweiterung4.EinrahmungeinerSzene5.NeurahmungeinerSzene.
Resume
Jusqu'ou
y
a-t-ilcreativitedanslestraductionsanglais-allemand,notammentdanslestraductionsdeT.S.Eliot?Pourl'evaluer,nousavonsfaitusageheuristiquedesnotionscommecellesdepointdeperspective,focus(ousaillance),figure,fond,scenario,frame(oucadrecognitif),elementssaillants,frontieresflouesetliantouenchainement.Onadistinguefinalement5typesdemodescreatifs:l'enchainementdecategories,laselectiond'elementsduscenario(ouscript),I'elargissernentduscenario,lamiseencadred'unscenarioetlamiseenplaced'unnouveauframe.
Resumen
Conel
fin
deestudiarlacreatividadenlastraduccionesdelinglesalaleman(lamayoriatomadasdel
OldPossum'sBookofPracticalCats
deT.S.Eliot),sehanutilizadocomomedioheuristicolosconceptos
perspectiva,enfoque,alineaci6nfigura/suelo,escena,marco,nucleo,bordesdifusos
y
encadenamiento.
Sepuedendistinguirvariastecnicascreativas:1)Encadenarcategorias2)Seleccionarelementosde1aescena3)Ampliarlaescena4)Enmarcarlaescena5)Imaginarunmarconuevo.
 
11~
PaulKussmaul
1.
Heuristicmodels
"Hecan'tthinkstraightforaminute!"Thisusuallyisnotexactlyalaudatorycomment.Creativepeople,however,veryoftendoexactlythis;theyjumpfromoneideatoanother.Thisdoesnotmeantheycannotthinkstraight,butwhenitcomestohavingabrightnewidea,thinkingstraightisreplacedbythinkingaroundthecorner,or,inthetermsofcreativityresearch,bythinkinglaterally(deBono1970)ordivergently(Guilford1975).
Lateralthinking,
atermcoinedbyEdwarddeBono,hasindeedbecomeoneofthebasicnotionsincreativityresearch.Lateralthinkingleadstonewideas,andsoitdoesintranslation.Astotheproductsthatresultfromnewideas,itisgenerallyrecognisedthattheyshouldbe
new
inonewayorotherandalsothattheyshouldbe
adequate
tothetask(cfPreiser1976:6ff.).Thesetwofeaturesshouldbekeptinmindwhenevaluatingcreativetranslations.Iamnotinterestedhereintranslationsthatarenotgoodenoughorevenbad.Iamspecificallystudyinggoodtranslations.Theycanbetakenasmodelsofhowtotranslatesuccessfully,especiallyifthecognitivecategoriesbehindthemcanberevealed.Therearetwofurthernotionscloselyconnectedwithlateralthinking:
perspective
and
focus
(cfBrodbeck1995:40-41,deBono1990:154-168usesthesynonym"attentionarea").Changingtheperspectiveandchangingthefocusarewaysofseeingfamiliarthingsinanewlightandthusofcomingupwithnewideas.Whenwedealwithlinguisticcategoriesandwiththeuseoflanguagethesenotionsare,ofcourse,metaphorical.
It
maybehelpful,therefore,tousepicturesasastartingpointinordertoillustratewhatgoesoninourmindswhenwearecreative.
Figure1
WhenwelookatthecubeinFigure1fromtheusualpointofview,itsfrontisonthelowerleftandwelookupwardtotheright.Butwecanchangepointofviewandlookatitsothatthefrontsideisontheupperrightand"welookdowntotheleft.Whenwemakeadrawingofamanonabikeweusuallylookathimfromtheside,butwemaychangetheperspectiveandlookathimfromtheandwhenheisaMexicanhewilllooklikeFigure2:
Figure2
Typesofcreativetranslating
11':1
Theseareamusinggames,buttheyalsorevealsomebasicfeaturesofcreativethinking.Creativethinkingmakesussee.details.wemaynothavenoticedbefore:inthedrawingoftheMexicanonabiketheunusualsizeandthesunshadefunctionofhishat.
It
isinterestingtoseethatthenotionsofperspectiveandfocusarealsousedincognitivesemantics.RonaldW.Langackerusesthenotionof
figure/groundalignment
toexplainperspectiveandfocus(1987:120ff.)'.Hereagain,apicturemayhelptoillustratewhathemeans.(Langackeronlygivesaverbaldescription.)InFigure3weusuallyseeawhitedotonablackfield.Thefocusisonthewhitedot.
Figure3
InFigure4weusuallyseeablackframeor"roundwindow".
Figure4
ThefocusinFigure4isonthewindow.Langacker'sexplanationisthatthelargerareaisseenasthegroundandthesmallerareaasthefigure.Thusthewhitedotissmallerthantheblackground,andwhenitbecomesbiggerandbiggeruntilitreaches.thesizeofadisc,itbecomesthegroundforthefigure,whichthentakestheformofaframeforlookingthrough.Langackermakesuse
 
I.LV
PaulKussmaul
here.ofthen~tion"canonicalviewpoint",whichistheusualandnaturalwayoflookingatthings(Langacker1987:123).Thus,whenlookingatthecubewemayfin?ithardtopreserve.:henewpointofview;afterafewsecondswemayrelapseintotheoldand
familiar
perspective..Althoughwemayfinditdifficulttodosowecanstructurethingsinadifferentway.Thefirstfigurewecanseeasablackpieceofcardboardwithalittleholeinit,~dthesecondfigurewecanseeasawhiteplateonablacktablemat.Thisisamoreunusualfocus,anditisverysimilartothechangeoffocususedasasta~ingpointfordivergentthinking.Increativetranslating,asweshallsee,changingtheperspectiveandfocusplaysaveryimportantpart.Beingguidedbytheprincipleoffidelity,wewilltrytopreservethenotionsandc?nceptsoft~esourcetextinourtranslation,butwemaychangethepointofviewfromwhichweseeaconceptand/orwemayfocusondifferentelementsofaconcept.Thereisanotherfrequentlyusedtermcloselylinkedwithprototypes.~henreferringtolargernotions,useismadeof
scene
oreven
scenario
(cf.FIllmore1977).Scenesmayconsistofalargenumberofelements.Itwillbeseenthatthenotionofasceneandfocusingonsceneelementsarehelpfultoolsforexplainingwhathappensincreativetranslating.Focusa~dperspective,itseemstome,arealsoatworkin
prototypesemantzcs
and
in
whatGeorgeLakoffcalls
chaining,
anotionbasedonprototypesemantics.Chainingtakesplacevia
coreelements
(whicharefocused)ofsce~arios(Lakoff1987:95).Whentranslatingcreativelywesometimesdo
this.
Ifwedonotwanttothrowtheprincipleoffidelityoverboardaltogethertherewill,afterall,havetobesomelinkbetweenthesourceandtargettexts..Scenes~reli~guisticallyrepresentedby
frames
(cf.Fillmore1977).Increative
translating,
Itwillbeseen,scenicdetailsmentionedinthesourcetextareso~~tim~sreplacedbyaframeinthetargettext.Forpracticalpurposeswecan
distinguish
theframefromthescenebecauseusuallyaframeismoreabstractandconsistsoffewerwordsthanadescriptionofascene.
2.Typesofcreativetranslating
2.1Chainingofcategories
IntheAsterixcomicstheDruid'snameintheFrenchoriginalis
Panoramix.
Thenamereferstothefar-sightednessandvisionarypowersofthewiseoldman.IntheEnglishversionheiscalled
Get-a-fix,
anallusiontothedistributionofthemagicpotion,andintheGermanversionhisnameis
Miraculix
whichreferstothemiraculouseffectsofthepotion.Thesetranslationscanberegardedas
Typesofcreativetranslating
121creativebecausetheyarenewinthesensethattheydifferfromthesourcetext.If,followingLakoff,wethinkofthenamesascategories,wemightfinditdifficulttoseethe
chaining
orlinkingelementbetweentheoriginalnameanditstranslations:whathavevisionarypowerstodowiththemagicpotion?Arethesenottwocompletelydifferentcategories?Theconnectionbecomesmoreobvious,though,ifweseethecategorieswithinanoverallscenario:thedruidwithallhisvariousfunctionsandcapabilities.Theyarethelinkingelementsbetweenthevariousnamesforhim.Wemayregardthedifferentnamesasaresultofadifferent
perspective.
ForsomeoneinterestedinplanningandlookingaheadapropernamefortheDruidmaywellbe
Panoramix,
forsomeoneinterestedintheeffectsofaspecialtypeofboozehemayadequatelybecalled
Get-a-fix,
andforthosewhotakehimalongtofightagainsttheRomansheisaproper
Miraculix.
Thedifferentnamescanalsobeexplainedby
focus;
thedifferentnamesintheFrench,EnglishandGermanversionputtheemphasisondifferentfeaturesofthecharacter.InLangacker'stermswemaycallthesefeaturesthe
figure
againstthe
ground
oftheoverallscenario,andwhatwaspartofthegroundintheFrenchsourcetext(remembertherestructuringofLangacker'sfigure-groundalignment!)becomesthefigureinthetranslations.Thefactthatcategoriesarepartsoflargerscenarioscanbeusedasahypothesistoexplaincreativetranslations.Theseembeddingsarenotdissimilartothehierarchicalstructureofsemanticfields,butincontrasttothemtheyarenotcausedbythelanguagesystembutbyourcomprehensionofthetextandbyourexperiences.Thisisthepsychologicalaspectofthemodel,andthisiswhatenablesusto
chaincategories.2.2Pickingoutsceneelements
Intranslationswecanoftenobservethatarelativelyabstractwordofthesourcetextisreplacedbya
more
detailedandconcretee}pression.Thiscanbeanalysedfromacognitivepointofview.,,_In
T.
S.Eliot's
OldPossum'sBookofPracticalCats
(whichwasusedasthe
Iibrettofor
themusical
Cats)
oneofthepoemsisabout
Gus,theTheatreCat,
whoasanoldcattellseveryonehowfamoushewasintheolddays:
Forheisn'tthecatthathewasinhisprime;Though
his
namewasveryfamous,hesays,initstime.
(T.S.
Eliot1961:72)Thewords
name,famous,initstime
aretheframeswhicharefilledin,asitwere,bythereader'smentalpictures.Thesepicturesarepartofthecomprehensionprocess,whichiscloselylinked,asIhavebeenabletoobserveinmanyinstances,withtheactualtranslationprocess.Translatorscanbe

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